|CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS POLITICS?||POLITICAL SCIENCE||POLITICAL THEORY||CHAPTER 2: POLITICAL IDEOLOGIES||(cont’d)|
POLITICIANS VS POLITICAL SCIENTISTS:
THE SUBFIELDS OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
POLITICAL SCIENTISTS VS POLITICAL THEORISTS:
POLITICAL SCIENCE: ORIGINS
- The root problem of gender inequality is psychological (the patriarchy)
|CHAPTER 3: STATES VS NATIONS||CHAPTER 4: CONSTITUTIONS AND RIGHTS||CHAPTER 5: REGIMES||(cont’d)|
EFFECTIVE, WEAK, AND FAILED STATES:
STATES AND THE ECONOMY:
WHY DO NATIONS ADOPT CONSTITUTIONS?
Refers to a judge’s willingness to strike down certain laws and practises
When a Supreme Court sees its job not as legislating, but as following the lead of Congress
CONSTITUTIONS AND CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT:
THE PURPOSE OF A CONSTITUTION:
CAN CONSTITUTIONS ENSURE RIGHTS?
THE ADAPTABILITY OF THE U.S. CONSTITUTION:
FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION IN THE U.S.:
FREE SPEECH AND SEDITION:
REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY AND POLITICAL COMPETITION:
ALTERNATION IN POWER AND UNCERTAIN ELECTORAL OUTCOMES:
POPULAR REPRESENTATION AND MAJORITY DECISION:
RIGHT OF DISSENT, POLITICAL EQUITY, AND POPULAR CONSULTATION:
DEMOCRACY IN PRACTICE:
Those who argue that elites are little accountable; they are usually radicals who decry rule by elites as unfair and undemocratic. Elite theorists view society as a single pyramid with a tiny elite at the top.
Those who argue that elites are ultimately accountable; they point out that most politicians are of modest origins, and few are from wealthy families. They say that politics functions through interest group that protests or demands something. Pluralists view society as many billiard balls colliding with each other and with government to form policy.
Totalitarians push an official theory of history, economics, and future political and social development.
One party totally dominates politics, led by one man who establishes a cult of personality.
Security police use both physical and psychological methods to keep citizens obedient.
The media in totalitarian states are strictly censored to sell the official ideology and show the system is working well under wise leaders.
Governments of totalitarian nations have a complete monopoly on weapons, thus eliminating armed resistance.
Totalitarian regimes control the economy.
THE DEMOCRATISATION OF AUTHORITARIAN REGIMES:
|CHAPTER 6: POLITICAL CULTURE||CHAPTER 7: PUBLIC OPINION||CHAPTER 8: POLITICAL COMMUNICATION||CHAPTER 9: INTEREST GROUPS|
THE RULE OF ANTICIPATED REACTIONS
THE DECAY OF POLITICAL CULTURE
ELITE AND MASS SUBCULTURES
Most government use history to inculcate children with pride and patriotism. The amount of schooling also affects political attitudes.
Friends and playmates also form political values, and the relative strength of peer-group influence appears to be growing. Family socialisation can be reinforced by peer groups who see the world similarly.
In a household with conservative parents and conservative neighbours, the children may also be exposed to conservative messages on Fox News.
Many government activities are intended to explain or display the government to the public, always designed to build support and loyalty.
An objective determination asks people their annual income or judges the quality of the neighbourhood.
The subjective determination simply asks respondents what their social class is, which sometimes diverges from objective criteria.
HOW CAN PUBLIC OPINION ACTUALLY BE SHAPED?
Different political attitudes grow up around different jobs; class matters, especially in combination with other factors, such as region or religion.
Education level is related to social class, and this contributes to polarisation. Rising education costs prevent others from joining the educated classes, slowing social mobility.
A country’s outlying regions usually harbour resentment against the capital, creating what are called centre-periphery tensions. Regional memories can last for centuries, and once a region gets set in its politics, it will stay that way for a long time.
Religion contributes a great deal to the structuring of opinion and can either mean denomination or religiosity. One of the biggest divisions in Catholic countries is between clericalists and anti-clericalists. Religion also tends to overlap with ethnicity.
There are two theories on how age affects political opinions: the life cycle and generation theories. The first, widely accepted, holds that people change as they age. Thus, young people are naturally radical and older people moderate or even conservative.
This life cycle theory does not always work because sometimes whole generations are marked for life by the great events of their young adulthood. Survivors of wars and depressions remember them for decades, and they colour their views on war, economics, and politics. Sociologist Karl Mannheim (1893–1947) called this phenomenon political generations.
Even before the women’s movement, gender made a difference in politics. Traditionally, and especially in Catholic countries, women were more conservative, more concerned with home, family, and morality. But as a society modernises, men’s and women’s views change.
Race and ethnicity are related to region and religion but sometimes plays a distinct role, especially in the multiethnic United States, where some ethnic groups form political subcultures. America was long touted as a “melting pot” of immigrant groups, but ethnic consciousness lasts many generations.
There is often a gap between elite and mass opinion. The mass public does not understand much about complicated issues but can react after decisions have been made. Elites, educated and influential people, usually have more complex and sophisticated perspectives. The masses often misunderstand and resent decisions. They know what hits them in the pocket book or infringes on their basic values and may lash out at perceived unfairness.
A pollster first has to decide whose opinions they want the survey to represent. Generally, polls are only interested in the opinions of adults, not kids. But not all adults’ opinions are of equal importance. Often, pollsters are only interested in the adults likely to vote in an upcoming election. Then they would be interested in the opinions of registered voters, or an even more select group: likely voters. The people the poll results represent is the population.
The most basic way to create a representative sample is through a simple random sample. Imagine drawing names out of a hat with everyone in the population’s name in it.
The next step is to get the people in the sample, known as respondents, to answer the pollster’s questions. Surveying respondents in person is very expensive because of travel costs and is rarely used anymore in the United States. In developing countries where phones and computers are rare, in-person surveys may be the only possible way to do a survey. The most common type are phone surveys.
The unbiased wording of questions to avoid slanting responses is also important. A slight difference in wording greatly shifts responses.
The use of newspapers has drastically declined since the early 1900’s. Unlike newspapers, however, blogs share not tradition of neutrality and are often wildly partisan (more activism than journalism). Some fear the demise of objective reporting.
Like newspapers, radio, too, has declined. Popular “talk radio” shows, often hosted by angry right-wingers, reinforce conservative views, while liberal radio magazines offer perspectives on world events, economics, politics, etc.
Until recently, the wire services’ definition of news has been something from an official source. Today, the AP (Associated Press) in New York is in financially difficulty because citizens have no incentive to buy information when they can reach it online for free.
The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal, and Financial Times are read by a small fraction of the U.S. population, but they carry by far the most clout. Decision makers in Washington read them and take both their news stories and editorials seriously. Leading thinkers fight battles on their “op-ed” pages (opposite the editorial page). That is why these papers have influence out of all proportion to their circulation. They are the elite media because the people who read them are generally wealthier and better educated and have much more influence than readers of hometown papers. The elite press pursues “investigative reporting,” looking for government and partisan wrongdoing, something the average paper shuns for fear of lawsuits.
THE GIANT TELEVISION
Television news is hooked on the eye-catching and is inherently a more emotional medium than the others; its coverage can go straight to the heart. Television, however, needs to know in advance what's going to happen, and only then can it schedule a camera crew. Analysis is also not television’s strong point, as an average news story runs one minute.
Television changed politics in several ways. In the U.S., for example, the president is seen as an omnipotent parental figure, a person who can fix everyone's problems, thanks to how the television paints him to be.
In the nominating process, television has become a king-maker, so candidates arrange their schedules and strategies to capture as much television exposure as possible. Increasingly, candidates raise funds through their own team and use television to speak directly to voters.
People born before WWII are more trusting and more inclined to join groups and participate in politics. His reason was that they were raised before the television age that began in the 1950’s. Younger people who were raised on the television lack these qualities.
A related charge is that television saturates viewers so far in advance of elections that they lose interest. This leads to indecision and apathy.
For European nations, national control of electronic communications is as normal as state ownership of the railroads due to their traditions of centralised power and government paternalism. The U.S. government, on the other hand, exercises the least control of communications of any industrialised country.
THE MEDIA AND THE GOVERNMENT
GOALS OF INTEREST GROUPS
INTEREST GROUPS AND GOVERNMENT
BUREAUCRATS AND INTEREST GROUPS
EFFECTIVE INTEREST GROUPS
INTEREST GROUP STRATEGY
|CHAPTER 10: PARTIES||CHAPTER 11: ELECTIONS||CHAPTER 12: LEGISLATURES||(cont’d)|
PARTIES IN DEMOCRACIES
Centralised parties control the election lists and place loyal party members at the top of the list of ensure their election to parliament (e.g.: Israel).
Decentralisation leads to a decrease in coherence; the candidates are much more independent of the parties, which has contributed to rifts and splits in the U.S., for example.
CLASSIFYING POLITICAL PARTIES
Generally want to nationalise major industries.
Favour welfare states.
Generally liberal on social issues, but conservative on economics.
Want to rein in the welfare state in favour of free enterprise.
Want to dismantle the welfare state and break the power of labor unions.
Are generally nationalistic and anti-immigrant.
The classical Communist party structure of Lenin favoured the interlocking of a single party with the economic system of the state; the economy was not directly ruled by the party, though.
THE PARTY SYSTEM AND THE ELECTORAL SYSTEM
INCOME AND EDUCATION
WHO VOTES HOW?
The attachments that citizens feel towards a party for. along time will influence how a citizen votes in elections. A person's party identification is heavily influenced by their parents, and people will usually adopt the party ID held by their parents. Party identification is important in helping to ensure electoral stability.
People will support political parties based on how they perceive their social class. Two things that muddy class voting are working-class people who vote for conservative parties due to self-identification as middle-class. Class voting is not as accurate of a predictor of voting behaviour, but is still relevant.
Some regions identify strongly with certain parties, especially in states that have a core/periphery struggle.
People of colour tend to be left-leaning.
Those who identify as religious are more likely to be conservative and vote for Republicans or right-wing parties.
Young people who socialised to politics during an event that changed their political culture will stick with their political party for most of their life.
Women used to be more conservative in the past, but are now leaning towards more liberal political parties.
Unmarried people are much more likely to vote for left-wing parties than married people, who tend to be traditionalists.
Citizens with sexual identities that diverge from heterosexuality tend to vote for left-leaning parties that don’t implement policies limiting or discriminating their freedoms.
Big cities tend to vote for strongly liberal or left-leaning parties.
WHAT WINS ELECTIONS?
CANDIDATE STRATEGIES AND VOTER GROUPS
Here, the head of state is weak, symbolic, and distinct from the head of government. Citizens only vote for the legislature, not for the chief of government. The government is directly responsible to the majority in the legislature and the government can fall if the majority does not support its policies.
PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM (a minority)
Shows a clear separation between legislative and executive branches. The President combines the roles of head of state and head of government. Presidents are not responsible to the legislature for their power or their term of office and as a result they are extremely difficult to remove from office.
SEPARATION AND FUSION OF POWERS
BICAMERAL OR UNICAMERAL?
THE COMMITTEE SYSTEM
WHAT ARE LEGISLATURES TODAY?
PROBLEMS WITH LEGISLATURES
Legislation cannot be short and simple because modern society is complex, but practically nobody can understand it.
Because most legislators are not technical experts in matters of policy there is a lack of expertise in most legislative branches. This is not necessarily a bad thing as there is value in a citizen legislature. However, a lack of expertise leads to a heavy reliance on experts from the executive departments, which diminishes the independence of the legislative branch.
Citizens are more impressed with presidents and prime ministers than legislatures. Parliaments are seen as groups of people who simply squabble with each other.
THE ABSENTEE PROBLEM AND DECLINE OF PARLIAMENTS
Legislators might be busy doing other things, such as constituency work, fundraising, etc.
Some legislators might just be lazy.
Many members become career, lifetime politicians who are reelected as often as they like, which means little new blood or fresh ideas.
THE DILEMMA OF PARLIAMENTS
|CHAPTER 13: EXECUTIVES AND BUREAUCRACIES||(cont’d)||CHAPTER 13: JUDICIARIES||(cont’d)|
Presidential terms are fixed and in some cases limited in total numbers of terms that can be served, which makes presidents harder to remove from office.
Prime ministers have no limit on their tenure in office as long as their party continues to win a majority in parliament. Prime ministers have an advantage in that they can dissolve parliament when it is most convenient in electoral terms for their party and hold new elections, which helps ensure that they can retain their majority in parliament. However, prime ministers can be ousted quickly if they lose the support of the majority.
TYPES OF EXECUTIVE LEADERSHIPS (there is a middle ground)
Trying to supervise and manage nearly all aspects of their administration; however, with this approach, executives scatter and exhaust themselves.
Little supervision where authority is mostly delegated. However, here executives let important issues slide.
OTHER STATES AND THEIR SYSTEMS
The German parliamentary system is built around the idea of constructive no-confidence. The German chancellor is as strong as British PM in terms of setting policy and running cabinet.
One major difference between the two is the mechanism for removal. The German chancellor can only be ousted by a constructive vote of no-confidence, which is an attempt to avoid the parliamentary instability of the Weimar Republic. Executives in a constructive no-confidence vote system are stronger than those without.
France's system is “semi-presidential” and combines a working prime minister with a chancellor. Russia and China have similar systems. If both the president and the prime minister are from the same party there is no problem, as the president appoints a PM from his or her party and the parliament approves.
BUREAUCRACIES IN DIFFERENT STATES
Bureaucrats in the United States are powerful and may be more important in innovating laws than the public or Congress. A good example of this is cigarette package warning labels, which was a policy initiative that came from the bureaucracy.
Another source of bureaucratic power is that in the United States, departments carry out unclear laws and interpret the meaning and intent of those laws during the implementation process. Bureaucrats have a lot of knowledge, and that knowledge is power.
The Soviet Union was one of the world's most bureaucratic states and it was the cause of its undoing. In this the Soviet state was ironic because Marxist theory maintained there was no need for Western-style bureaucracy, but it was quickly implemented by Lenin and increased by Stalin. Five-year economic plans for directing the economy were a clear effort at using the bureaucracy to manage and direct the entire Soviet economy.
This privileging mechanism made the Soviet bureaucracy very conservative by nature, as the best and brightest were recruited into the bureaucracy and then resisted changes that would affect their positions.
During the 17the and 18th centuries, Napoleon made the bureaucracy even more rational and effective, drawing on the model set forward by Richelieu. French bureaucrats are trained at the "Great Schools" that emphasise specialised training. The power of French bureaucracy was increased due to the instability of the Third and Fourth Republics. As a result France is heavily bureaucratised and extremely centralised.
The German bureaucracy bears the stamp of the Prussian state nobility called Junkers, who controlled almost all civil service positions in Prussia and brought Prussian values, including loyalty to the state, to German administration, following unification under Bismarck.
Following the war, as Germany rebuilt democracy, there has been a strong commitment by German civil servants to democracy and democratic values. A final distinctive feature of German bureaucrats is that they tend to have the mentality of Roman law, neatly organised and fixed into codes.
The United Kingdom has strong traditions of local self-government and dispersion of power, which has encouraged legislative control of administrative authority. Central government did not begin to run things until the twentieth century. In 1870, a merit-based civil service using competitive exams was established to fight corruption.
British ministers are accountable to parliament but real power is in the hands of the career "permanent secretary" and other career bureaucrats.
Japan provides an extreme example of “rule by bureaucrats”, a situation in which the bureaucrats are more powerful than, and often have a great deal of contempt for, elected officials.
The Japanese bureaucracy was based on the French model, so the bureaucracy was always powerful, and it became more powerful after World War II. The long-term economic stagnation in Japan has contributed to a new generation of Japanese politicians trying to reform bureaucracy, but there has been little success.
Modern criminal law is largely statutory and covers a specific category of wrongs that are considered social evils and threats to the community. Consequently, the state, rather than the victim, is the prosecutor, or plaintiff. Offences are usually divided into three categories. Petty offences, such as traffic violations, are normally punished by a fine.
Serious but not major offences such as gambling and prostitution are misdemeanours, punishable by larger fines or short jail sentences. Major crimes, felonies, such as rape, murder, robbery, and extortion, are punished by imprisonment.
Many statutes govern civil rather than criminal matters. Civil law provides redress for private plaintiffs who can show they have been injured. The decisions are in dollars, not in jail time. Private individuals, not the state, conduct most civil litigation.
Written constitutions are usually general documents. Subsequent legislation and court interpretation must fill in the details. Constitutional law (indeed, law itself) is not static but a living, growing institution. The Constitution had not changed, but society’s conception of individual rights did.
A relatively recent development, administrative law covers regulatory orders by government agencies. It develops when agencies interpret statutes, as they must. The federal government now codifies administrative regulations, and they fill many volumes.
International law (IL) consists of treaties and established customs recognised by most nations. It is different because it cannot be enforced in the same way as national law: It has some judges and courts, but compliance is largely voluntary. IL is generally observed because it is in the interests of most countries not to break it. IL’s key mechanisms are reciprocity and consistency. Countries like being treated nicely, so they must extend the courtesy to others.
THE COURTS, THE BENCH, AND THE BAR
The U.S. court system consists of 51 judicial structures:
The federal system overlaps that of the states. The federal courts hear many cases in which the issue is one of state laws but the parties are residents of different states, the so-called “diversity jurisdiction.” Also, of course, they hear cases concerning federal laws. Conversely, issues of federal law (constitutional or statutory) may first arise in state courts. The Supreme Court of the United States can review the state court’s judgment on a federal question.
Each of the fifty states has its own court systems, and they handle 90% of the nation's legal business. Most of their cases are civil, and these local courts operate without juries. Most of their penalties are fines or short jail sentences.
Nominated by the President; must be approved by the Senate. To free them from executive and political pressure, they may serve for life unless impeached. Some federal judges owe their appointments to party affiliation, but most are well qualified.
There is also a tradition known as senatorial courtesy where a president defers to a senator’s choice from his party when there is an opening for a judicial district in the senator’s state. The opposition party accuses the president of trying to fill the bench with incompetent partisans and often tries to block confirmation.
State judges are either popularly elected or appointed, for terms ranging up to fourteen years. Both parties often nominate the same slate of judges so that the judicial elections have become largely nonpartisan.
THE ANGLO-AMERICAN ADVERSARIAL AND ACCUSATORIAL PROCESS
EUROPEAN COURT SYSTEMS
THE ROLE OF U.S. COURTS
THE SUPREME COURT'S POLITICAL IMPACT
In a unanimous ruling of 1954, the Court accepted the sociological argument of Thurgood Marshall (then attorney for the NAACP) that segregated public school facilities were “inherently unequal” because they stigmatised African American children and deprived them of the Fourteenth Amendment’s guarantee of equal protection.
The Warren Court’s rulings in criminal procedure included Mapp v. Ohio (1961), wherein the Court ruled that evidence police seized without a warrant was inadmissible in a state court. In 1963, in Gideon v. Wainwright, the Court held that indigent (having no money) defendants must be provided with legal counsel.
Equally important was the Warren Court’s mandating of equal-population voting districts. Until 1962, many states had congressional districts that overrepresented rural areas and underrepresented cities. The Warren Court overthrew Jim Crow laws, rewrote the rules for criminal procedure, and redrew legislative maps. With the possible exception of the Marshall Court, it was the most active, groundbreaking Court in U.S. history.
|CHAPTER 15: POLITICAL ECONOMY||CHAPTER 16: VIOLENCE AND REVOLUTIONS||CHAPTER 17: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS|
GOVERNMENT AND THE ECONOMY
Inflation is the decline of purchasing power of a given currency over time. A quantitative estimate of the rate at which the decline in purchasing power occurs can be reflected in the increase of an average price level of a basket of selected goods and services in an economy over some period of time.
A tax hike is the amount by which taxes are increased; “a tax increase of 15%”. An example is when President Johnson was reluctant to ask for a tax increase to pay for Vietnam for two reasons. First, he had just gotten a tax cut through Congress in 1964; it would have been embarrassing to reverse course the following year. Second, he did not want to admit that he had gotten the country into a long and costly war.
By the time Johnson and Congress had changed their minds and introduced a 10% tax surcharge in 1968, it was too late; inflation had taken hold.
This is the value of what a country exports compared with what it imports.
A floating exchange rate is a regime where the currency price of a nation is set by the forex market based on supply and demand relative to other currencies. This is in contrast to a fixed exchange rate, in which the government entirely or predominantly determines the rate.
Wage-price control sets government guidelines for limiting increases in wages and prices. It is a principal tool in incomes policy. Nixon, for example, froze wages and prices to knock out inflation.
International oil deals, like most international trade arrangements, were made with U.S. dollars. The dollar’s loss in value meant that the oil exporters were getting less and less for their black gold. The price of oil in the 1960’s was ridiculously low. As a result of the 1973 Mideast war, the members of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) were able to implement what they had been itching to do: quadruple oil prices. In 1979, in response to the revolutionary turmoil in Iran, they increased prices again.
Stagflation is a combination of slow growth plus inflation in the U.S. economy in the 1970’s. The manifold increase in petroleum prices produced inflation everywhere while simultaneously depressing the economy.
An interest rate is a percentage charged on the total amount you borrow or save. If you're a borrower, the interest rate is the amount you are charged for borrowing money – a percentage of the total amount of the loan. You can borrow money to buy something today and pay for it later.
The term “tax cuts” can seem a little confusing because it's a broad term that covers a wide range of situations that result in a lower amount of tax collected by the government. The one thing all tax cuts have in common is that they change a preexisting tax law or implement a new one that effectively reduces the amount of tax you have to pay.
Again trying to stimulate the economy, President Reagan turned to an approach called “supply-side economics,” which focuses on investment and production rather than on consumer demand, as Keynesian policy does.
A budget deficit occurs when expenses exceed revenue and indicate the financial health of a country. The government generally uses the term budget deficit when referring to spending rather than businesses or individuals. Accrued deficits form national debt.
A trade deficit occurs when a country's imports exceed its exports during a given time period. It is also referred to as a negative balance of trade (BOT). The balance can be calculated on different categories of transactions: goods (a.k.a., “merchandise”), services, goods and services. Balances are also calculated for international transactions—current account, capital account, and financial account.
Government debt, also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt, contrasts to the annual government budget deficit, which is a flow variable that equals the difference between government receipts and spending in a single year. The debt is a stock variable, measured at a specific point in time, and it is the accumulation of all prior deficits. Government debt can be categorised as internal debt (owed to lenders within the country) and external debt (owed to foreign lenders).
13) FISCAL CLIFF
The fiscal cliff refers to a combination of expiring tax cuts and across-the-board government spending cuts that create a looming imbalance in the federal budget and must be corrected to avert a crisis.
Since the 1970’s, Americans’ incomes have grown less equal and the middle class smaller. The rich get a bigger slice of the nation’s economic pie; the poor and much of the middle class get smaller pieces. Those with the right education and skills may do well, but those with a high-school education or less do poorly.
Financial markets tend to produce “bubbles,” fast growth in investments that let people ignore risk—until the bubbles pop. Some economists blame alternating manias and panics, both heavily psychological, what Keynes called the “animal spirits” of investor irrationality. He urged government intervention to dampen both.
WHAT IS POVERTY?
WELFARE VS ENTITLEMENTS
Can be raised or lowered from year to year. Congress, for example, may decide to increase defence spending and cut highway spending.
Cannot be so easily changed; it is what the federal budget is stuck with from previous statutory commitments. Mandatory spending in turn is divided into interest payments on the national debt and entitlements; together they are around half of the federal budget.
THE COSTS OF WELFARE
The Food Stamp program was implemented nationwide under Johnson in 1964. The Carter administration simplified the program in 1977 by eliminating the provision that recipients buy the stamps at a discount with their own money. This policy had meant that the absolutely destitute could get no food stamps.
The Food Stamp program became bigger than expected, but fraud and waste have not been major factors. Only a few recipients sold food stamps at 50 cents on the dollar to buy liquor and drugs, and all food stamps are now debit cards, which fights the fraud problem.
The 1996 reform signed by President Clinton replaced entitlement-type welfare payments with block grants to the states to spend fighting poverty as they saw fit. Recipients had five years to get off welfare. Many states developed workfare programs that required recipients to either take jobs or training.
At least two factors induce exponential growth in medical assistance: more people become eligible and medical costs soar. Medicare is especially expensive, for all get it upon reaching age sixty-five, even rich people.
Hospitals and doctors, once they are assured of payment, have no incentive to economise. When in doubt, they put the patient in the hospital — at $1,000 and more a day — and order expensive tests. Some hospitals expanded into medical palaces, and some physicians got rich from Medicare and Medicaid. Washington tried various ways of tightening up, but medical costs continued to climb.
HOW BIG SHOULD GOVERNMENT BE?
Grows out of conflicts between basic communities. There are multiple examples, including conflict between Hutus and Tutsis in Rwanda.
Aims at independence for the groups in question. It can sometimes be an outgrowth of a primordial conflict, like Tamil separatism in Sri Lanka and how Bengali independence from Pakistan led to the creation of Bangladesh.
Revolutionary violence aims at overthrowing or replacing existing regimes. It is important to remember that revolutions seek to completely get rid of existing elites (e.g.: the Arab Spring).
Coups are usually aimed against revolution, corruption, and chaos and are almost always conducted by the military. Occasionally, they are indirectly supported by key sectors of society. Coups usually involve little violence, at least initially, but can turn violent if the military senses opposition.
Political violence that falls into this category is generally less violent than other forms of political violence. Examples of this might include the globalisation and austerity protests that have recently occurred.
First the old regime decays as administration breaks down, taxes increase, and citizens no longer believe in government.
The first stage of revolution occurs as committees, conspiracies, networks, and cells form, committed to overthrowing the old regime. A catalyst event occurs. The initial takeover is usually easy because government has essentially put itself out of business.
These are people who are connected with the old regime, but who oppose it, take over and initiate moderate, non-radical reforms.
The moderates’ reforms are not enough for extremists, who drive the revolution to a high point where everything old is thrown out and the revolution goes mad
The “cooling off” period; often a dictator who resembles the original tyrants takes over to restore order.
REVOLUTIONS AROUND THE WORLD
Some scholars argue it was not really a revolution because it did not remake society and that in effect it was an example of separatist violence, a war of independence and not a revolution. Hannah Arendt disagreed, arguing that the U.S. Revolution was a revolution and may be the only complete revolution in history because the old system of tyranny was replaced by new system of democracy
Most people agree about the ideas that guided the revolution but acknowledge that the revolution went wrong, which led to bloodshed and tyranny.
Most scholars now believe that Lenin was just as ruthless and bloodthirsty as Stalin and that Lenin was wrong from the start.
The Vietnamese revolution went astray as after the war, the communist government turned Vietnam into one of the world's poorest countries.
Castro continued to proclaim his regime revolutionary even though most citizens are over the shortages and restrictions. Under Raul Castro, reform seems possible.
POWER AND NATIONAL INTEREST
THE IMPORTANCE OF ECONOMICS
Micro theories explain war as the result of genetic human aggressiveness that makes people fight. In this, humans resemble other mammals. These theories offer some insights but fall far short of explaining wars. If humans are naturally aggressive, why aren’t all nations constantly at war?
Macro theories are rooted in history and geography and concentrate on the power and ambitions of states. One country, fearing the growing power of a neighbour, will strengthen its defences or form alliances to offset the neighbour’s power.
Some hypotheses in this theoretical category include:
The oldest and most commonly held theory is that peace results when several states use national power and alliances to balance one another. Would-be expansionists are blocked. According to balance-of-power theorists, the great periods of relative peace have been times when the European powers balanced each other.
Other scholars reject the balance-of-power theory. Calculations of power are problematic, so it is impossible to know when power balances. Often periods of peace occurred when power was out of balance, when states were ranked hierarchically in terms of power.
The psychological and real worlds bounce against each other in the minds of political leaders. They think they are acting defensively, but their picture of the situation may be distorted.
The real culprit, many claim, is sovereignty itself. States should give up some of their sovereignty (the ability to go to war) to an international entity that would prevent war much as an individual country keeps the peace within its borders. But no nation would willingly do so.
The League of Nations tried collective security, and nations pledged to join in economic and military action against any aggressor. But when Japan conquered Manchuria in 1931, the League merely studied the situation. Japan claimed the Chinese started it (a lie), and the other powers saw no point in entering a distant conflict where they had no interests.
Dozens of UN-related agencies now promote international cooperation in disease control, food production, weather forecasting, civil aviation, nuclear energy, and other areas. Even hostile countries are sometimes able to sit together to solve a mutual problem in specialised areas. But this doesn't last.
Third parties can help calm a tense situation and find compromise solutions, but the contenders have to want to find a solution. If not, third-party help is futile.
The oldest approach to preserving peace is through diplomatic contact, with envoys sent from one state to another.
Related to diplomacy is the use of third-party military forces to support a cease-fire or truce to end fighting (e.g.: UNPROFOR, MFO)
THE MOVE BEYOND SOVEREIGNTY
The UN has sent many peacekeepers to observe truces, as in the Middle East and Balkans, but these few and lightly armed forces from small countries were in no position to enforce peace.
The North Atlantic Treaty is limited in scope and does not apply anywhere else, not in the Middle East, Africa, the Balkans, or the Caucasus, which are “out of area.”.