John Searle

4th December 2020

A fundamental distinction:

  • features which exist independently of us
  • features whose existence is owed to us

for example, marriage is an institution which came about at a certain point in human history and it’s not inevitable.

External Reality


+++ the example of the screwdriver

A screwdriver exists and becomes so because we use it as such.

Institutional facts behave in the same way: functions aren’t intrinsic in the essence of the object +++

An underlying logic that can be summarized in the simple formula

x counts as y in C +++ learn Latex



Searle nevertheless is very critical towards Constructivism:

his definition of it:




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