One of the most important political philosophers, born in Riga and moved to Petrograd, where he experienced the R.R. and he was strongly negatively influenced by it.
He taught at Oxford, where in 1958 held an inaugural lecture in particular focused on Marxism.
political theory is a branch of moral philosophy, which starts from the discovery or application of moral notions in the sphere of political relations
Philosophical discussion can influence both the political and economical sphere. Through philosophy one can get tools to solve political matters.
The conflict between obedience and coercion is a conflict between two different notions.
I’m defined as free to the degree to which nothing and nobody interfere with my activities. Politically speaking, i +++
(note: Berlin always uses the masculine)
Unlimited freedom is not desirable. Any law, of whatever kind, in itself actually is a limitation of freedom.
We tend to merge the concept of individual liberty with the one of form of government, which are different. Freedom from boundaries can only cause disorder, since it’s obvious that the individual freedom ends when the individual freedom of another one starts.
Reference to Kant: I am actually free when my actions follow from laws I rationally give to myself. I’m free because I pursue decisions which I consider rational
Who is then my own master?
+++ Berlin refers in particular to communist systems, considering also he pronounces this lecture at the peak of the cold war.
He understands why the second definition of freedom was conceived as so important. A conflict of different values.
It’s ok to have different ideas and interpretations of freedom, but call the right things with the right names.