4th December 2020

What matters as a matter of fact is substantively determined by factors that have nothing to do with a mind-independent world.

To realism the reality described is independent from men, yet there are different context necessarily influence an evaluation and definition of the world.


A focus on both the manner how a process is built and the product itself.

The connection between process and product, in the hand of a constructivists becomes a rather radical conclusion:

the product is not really inevitable; change the process and the product may change or even disappear.

What we are actually observing is an interpretation of our theories and structures, we can’t absolutely objectively ACCESS it.

The argument

+++S propositions in “format of argument”

  1. if X is constructed, X is what it is not because some given order of things but by a contingent activity - although it’s a necessary condition to explain how X is constructed, but it’s not sufficient:
  2. For our X not to be inevitable we need P2 - it’s our history and subjectivity that make X what it is. They are necessary for the existence of X…
  3. … but they aren’t necessary themselves

the non-inevitability of human actions +++

Electrons aren’t electrons themselves, they’re made so by a construction of the mind.

Levels of interpretation

To say that X is constructed we +++

p: X is constructed

this could mean:

  1. the object itself
  2. the idea of the object

Only the idea of X is constructed, X itself isn’t, but it’s an existing object anyways. All I have is my constructed idea. We don’t have any guarantee that what we mean actually reaches out to reality.

??? Exaggerated Cartesianism?

We might go all the way through this and eventually affirm that reality itself doesn’t exist.

+++ To say that they aren’t real it doesn’t mean they are so because there is no reality but because +++.

These subtleties are often neglected


it follows Applied Metaphysics

Merits of Constructivism




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