Arca Unit 9

[Liberalism, Socialism and Feminism]{.c12}

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  1. ["liberty" before Liberalism ]{.c9} {#h.rk92rqaldlfw style=”display:inline”}

[“liberal” as a political adjective was coined only around 1800, and became the liberalism we now now around the 19th century]{.c5}

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[“liberty”, instead, became a central part of political thought since late Humanism and Early Enlightenment; (Locke, Hume, Kant) ]{.c5}

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[historians such as Pocock and Skinner argue that there is more than one meaning of “liberty”: ]{.c5}

  1. [the contractarian tradition]{.c4}[: Grotius, Locke, Mandeville, Hume]{.c5}

[concerned with maximizing individual freedom and wealth under the condition of a political society (commonwealth); ]{.c5}

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  1. [the]{.c4}[ ”Roman republican” tradition]{.c4}:[ reactivated by Machiavelli]{.c5}

[concerned with the freedom of the political society (republic) as a whole, depending on individual virtue (american second amendment)]{.c5}

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[political processes commonly associated with “liberal” traditions: ]{.c5}

  • [the Dutch Republic, 1588-1795;]{.c5}
  • [the English period of Civil War and Revolution, 1649-89; ]{.c5}

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  1. [ Liberalism as a political movement ]{.c9} {#h.lkwhn7awq9ec style=”display:inline”}

[liberalism was first used to talk about politics during the french Directorate 1795-99]{.c5}

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  • [ in Europe, the time of Liberal parties ended 1918, with the transformation of constitutional monarchies, mass society and the mass extension of the right for vote]{.c5}

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  • [In the USA, the adjective “liberal” had no appeal until the 1930s, when it became identified with moderate State intervention and social politics, and a commitment in favor of civil rights.]{.c5}

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  1. [the emergence of a socialist movement in the 19th century ]{.c9} {#h.lzudjdijmvh7 style=”display:inline”}

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[utopian socialism]{.c4}[:]{.c5}

[hope for a gradual transformation of society by disseminating utopian grass-root communities; the 1848 Revolution in France makes it evident that socialism needs a political organization (Saint Simon, Owen etc)]{.c5}

[land is the main productive factor, people who work the land have the right to dispose of it in a sense of exclusive property, because it’s the result of their work]{.c5}

[“privatus” something subtracted from the common good]{.c5}

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[marxist theory]{.c4}[: ]{.c5}

[laid the ground for a comprehensive, “scientific” view on social change political organization, immersed in an overall view on history (Marx and Engels)]{.c5}

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[the goal of scientific socialism is to understand the process of creating a new society  in order to exploit the contradictions of the capitalist system using scientific philosophy of history to serve the common good - pag.297]{.c5}

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[early 19th century: the only source of richness is work, not land or capital]{.c5}

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[socialist political parties]{.c4}[:]{.c5}

[in 1880-1914 with the advancement of industrialization, socialist trade unions and political parties emerged in Europe]{.c5}

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after[ 1900, the revolutionary purposes were gradually marginalized in favor of reformist claims for a gradual improvement of capitalist society.]{.c5}

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  1. [feminist movement and women rights before World War One]{.c14} {#h.ps0sf4hlrnpo style=”display:inline”}

[two major periods:]{.c5}

  1. [intellectual elaboration ]{.c4}[(17th century)]{.c5}
  • [Mary Astell: social recognition of women dignity]{.c5}
  • [Mary Wollstonecraft: claims women’s right for education to take their role in society, as they are essential to the nation]{.c5}
  • [Olympe de Gouges: exposed the failures of the French Revolution in the recognition of sex equality ]{.c5}
  • [Harriet Taylor Mill: here starts the claim for equal rights mainly for political participation ]{.c5}

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  1. [the achievement of feminism]{.c4}[:]{.c5}

[claims for political participation, to vote (suffragette in the UK), social rights]{.c5}

  • [Clara Zetkin: first international women’s day ]{.c5}

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[women’s suffrage]{.c5}

  • [New Zealand: 1893 ]{.c5}
  • [Australia: 1902 ]{.c5}
  • [Finland: 1906 ]{.c5}
  • [Norway: 1913 ]{.c5}
  • [Denmark: 1915 ]{.c5}
  • [Russia/URSS: 1917 ]{.c5}
  • [Ireland: 1918]{.c5}
  • [Germany: 1918]{.c5}

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  1. [Knowledge check]{.c9} {#h.lzsbsjvi3a1v style=”display:inline”}

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  1. [What are the differences between the "neoRoman" and the "contractualist" traditions? ]{.c5}

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  1. [ When was the adjective "liberal" first applied to political opinions, movements, and parties? ]{.c5}

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  1. [What were the main differences between "utopian" and "scientific" socialism?]{.c5}

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  1. [To which point did the women's rights movement develop until World War I?]{.c5}

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