Arca Unit 8

[The French Revolution and the Napoleonic period 1789-1814 ]{.c11}

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1.[ Major turning points of the revolutionary process ]{.c5} {#h.8vy1pwvtplmd .c7}

[the french revolution originated from social discontent which was triggered by the economic difficulties and the discontent of the bourgeoisie, because of the lack of representation]{.c0}

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[triggers:]{.c0}

  • [fiscal crisis because of colonialism]{.c0}
  • [France enters the war against Britain with the United States]{.c0}
  • [the estates general are summoned]{.c0}

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1789 [the year of revolution]{.c10}[:]{.c0}

  • [the estates general meets for the first time since 1614 to solve the crisis]{.c0}
  • [the third estate declares itself to be the national assembly ]{.c0}
  • [King Louis XVI recognizes the validity of the national assembly ]{.c0}
  • [storming of the Bastille, July 14]{.c0}
  • [peasants revolt against feudalism and urban disturbances and revolts ]{.c0}
  • [the Assembly adopts the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen]{.c0}

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1790-93[ from constitutional monarchy to the republic]{.c10}[:]{.c0}

  • [abolition of religious orders (formation of anti revolutionary movements), feudalism and nobility]{.c0}
  • [formation of power for political parties]{.c0}
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  • [september 1791 the constitution transforms the absolute monarchy in a constitutional monarchy]{.c0}
  • [January 1793: former king Louis XVI arrested and guillotined.]{.c0}
  • [Outbreak of rebellion in the Vendée]{.c0}
  • [Revolutionary Tribunal established in Paris, Committee of Public Safety]{.c0}
  • [Robespierre exponent of the jacobins, that took power and executed the former majority, the girondins]{.c0}
  • [June 1793: Republican Constitution ratified by the jacobins through a popular referendum employing universal male suffrage (republican constitution that established universal male suffrage)]{.c0}

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[1793-94 reign of terror:]{.c0}

  • [Committee of Public Safety suspends the constitution and declares the Reign of terror ]{.c0}
  • [one year later there is a counter move led by monarchist and the girondists forces]{.c0}

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1794-99 [period of the Directory]{.c10}[:]{.c0}

  • ["thermidorian reaction": new "moderate" liberal constitution that restricted the particièation rights to the wealthier class]{.c0}
  • [executive Directory of girondists and royalist inspiration takes on executive power]{.c0}
  • [expansionist wars in Europe and Africa, military leader Gen. Napoleon Bonaparte emerges]{.c0}
  • [1798 Napoleon is defeated in Egypt ad return to France, where he’s perceived as national hero]{.c0}
  • [November 9: The Coup d'État of 18 Brumaire: end of the Directory]{.c0}

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[1799-1804 period of the Consulate:]{.c0}

  • [December 24: Constitution of the Year VIII. Leadership of Napoleon established under the Consulate.]{.c0}
  • [French Republic: First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte]{.c0}

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1804-1814/15 [French Empire]{.c10}[:]{.c0}

  • [Napoleon I "elected" emperor by popular referendum]{.c0}
  • [all these process were founded under popular consent ]{.c0}

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[storming of the Bastille:]{.c0}

[parisian citizens and the bourgeois militia defeated the troops, forced to retire]{.c0}

[paris from this moment on is in the hands of the revolution]{.c0}

  • [this shows the social heterogeneity of the revolution]{.c0}

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[2. A new concept: "sovereignty of the people" ]{.c5} {#h.8vy1pwvtplmd-1 .c7}

[the concept of sovereignty of the people reorganized the concept of people and nations]{.c0}

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[nation: during the ancien regime the word referred to the biological descent of the nobility and its mythical foundation and the narration that delivered legitimacy to their power]{.c0}

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[people: used for common people that didn’t have a say in political matters]{.c0}

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[this perspective was turned upside down by the french revolution]{.c0}

  • [Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès “what is the third estate?” founding text of the concept of people sovereignty (the people correspond to the third estate and they were the true nation) ]{.c9}

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[3. The Nation as religion ]{.c5} {#h.p6m5jp1adeo1 .c7}

[the people are sacred throughout the law of nature]{.c0}

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[symbolism of the revolution confirmed the process of sacralization: ]{.c0}

[nature, reason, humanity, justice were depicted as goddesses that fought evil spirits of obscurantism]{.c0}

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[this process ended in the parliamentary decision that the supreme being existed and its veneration was a public affair]{.c0}

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[Novalis “Christianity or Europe” (1799) founding manifesto of modern conservatism, with Edmund Burke’s essay against the French Revolution]{.c0}

  • [works again the revolution but also appreciation for it]{.c0}

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[for Novalis the french revolution marked the end of the enlightenment since it sent a signal of regeneration]{.c0}

  • [he understood that since the french revolution on, politics had become a matter of mass communication (he anticipate the principles of political communication)]{.c0}

[4. Peoples' sovereignty and the rule of law ]{.c5} {#h.8vy1pwvtplmd-2 .c7}

[for Montesquieu: ]{.c0}

  • [three types of government:]{.c0}
  1. [monarchy, ruled by a queen or king]{.c0}
  2. [republic, ruled by an elected leader]{.c0}
  3. [despotism, ruled by a tyrant]{.c0}

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[“the spirit of the laws”]{.c0}

  • [three types of governmental power:]{.c0}
  1. [legislative]{.c0}
  2. [judicial]{.c0}
  3. [executive]{.c0}

[separation of powers could keep any individual or group from gaining total control]{.c0}

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[two types of tyranny: ]{.c0}

  1. [actual tyranny: consists of governmental violence]{.c0}
  2. [tyranny of opinion: when those who govern establish things which upset the nation’s way of thinking]{.c0}

[5. France 1789-1814: a laboratory of different possibilities]{.c5} {#h.8vy1pwvtplmd-3 .c7}

[25 years of various types of rules and government:]{.c0}

  • [absolute monarchy -1789 ]{.c0}
  • [constitutional monarchy 1789-93 ]{.c0}
  • [republican constitution of democratic character 1793 ]{.c0}
  • [emergency regime of terror 1793-94]{.c0}
  • [moderate elitist liberal rule 1794-99]{.c0}
  • [authoritarian populist rule 1799-1804]{.c0}
  • [monarchic dictatorship 1804-14]{.c0}
  • [restored absolute monarchy 1815-]{.c0}

[6. knowledge check]{.c5} {#h.y104xuarnpif .c7}

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  1. [What were the major events of 1789, 1793, 1795, 1799? ]{.c0}

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  1. [What type of legitimization could the new sovereign rely on?]{.c0}

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  1. [Did the Revolution decree the end of the sacred, belief, and sentiment in the realm of politics? ]{.c0}

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  1. [Was the rule of law guaranteed by the people's sovereignty?]{.c0}

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  1. [Compare the revolutionary constitutions, the régime of terror, and Napoleon's rise to later developments]{.c0}

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