Arca Unit 7

[The American Revolution of 1776 ]{.c11}

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  1. [Puritan eschatology, Lockean thought and neo-Roman republicanism]{.c9} {#h.58p48nj64h7c style=”display:inline”}

[american colony settlers founded in the 17th century]{.c0}

[]{.c0}

[puritan settlers]{.c7}[:]{.c0}

[organized themselves in joint stock companies (they organized the trip and the organization of the future colony)]{.c0}

[governors were the heads of these companies]{.c0}

  • [a spiritual, entrepreneurial and religious elite of political aristocracy formed (ex. John Winthrop) ]{.c0}
  • [aim to build a new England in the new world]{.c0}

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[Lockean thought:]{.c0}

  • [political thought that will later be called liberal, argument for the popular rule of the commonwealth]{.c0}

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[“The natural liberty of man is to be free from any superior power on earth and not to be under the will or legislative authority of man, but to have only the law of nature for his rule. The liberty of man, in society, is to be under no other legislative power but that established by consent in the commonwealth …”]{.c0}

[]{.c0}

  1. [ The conflict between the British crown and its American colonies ]{.c9} {#h.4linc89lpjnd style=”display:inline”}

[abolitionist debate in Great Britain ]{.c10 .c7}

[a debate develops about the legitimacy of slave trade and slavery, and the American settlers fear an abolitionist decree]{.c0}

[]{.c0}

1763 [- end of Seven years War:]{.c10 .c7}

[France cedes american territory except New Orlans to keep the caribbean islands]{.c0}

[Spain keeps the territory west of the Mississippi and exchanges Florida for Cuba]{.c0}

[Britain gains territories east of the Mississippi]{.c0}

[]{.c0}

1763 [- King George III proclamations:]{.c10 .c7}

[The king prohibits the extension of settlements west of the Appalachian mountains]{.c0}

[religious freedom for the French Catholics of Louisiana]{.c0}

[]{.c0}

1767 - [Revenue Act:]{.c10 .c7}

[foresees new taxes on tea, glass, lead, paper. The colonial assemblies protest: "no taxation without representation", because the colonies didn’t have representation in the british parliament]{.c0}

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1773 - [Boston tea party]{.c7}[:]{.c0}

[In sign of protest against tea taxation American settlers symbolically throw tons of tea overboard from ships of the East India Company]{.c0}

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1774 - [Intolerable Acts]{.c7}[:]{.c0}

[Massachusetts stripped of self-government; colonies boycott British goods. The Continental Congress and Congress meet for the first time (representative body of the colonies and leading body of the USA)]{.c0}

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  1. [The Declaration of Independence of 1776 and the Constitution of 1787 ]{.c9} {#h.wpt4mhi1cqd7 style=”display:inline”}

1775 - [Begin of American Revolutionary war]{.c7}[:]{.c0}

[first armed conflict of the war on 17 June between British and American troops. George Washington commander-in-chief of the Continental Army]{.c0}

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1776 -[ Continental Congress issues the Declaration of Independence on 4 July]{.c10 .c7}

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[there was great resistence to the revolution especially from slaves that were hoping for the abolition of slavery in Britain ]{.c0}

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1777 - british and american loyalist forces [surrender at Saratoga on 13 October]{.c7 .c10}

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1781 - [ratification of the Articles of Confederation]{.c7}[ on 1 March]{.c0}

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1783 - [peace treaty of Paris]{.c7}[, international recognition]{.c0}

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1787 - Constitutional Convention [adopts the American Constitution]{.c10 .c7}

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1791 - the Congress votes the amendments (“[Bill of Rights]{.c7}[”, core of the constitution)]{.c0}

[           long process because every amendment had to be voted by the founding colonies,               ]{.c0}

[           now states]{.c0}

[]{.c0}

  1. [Slavery before and after Independence ]{.c9} {#h.cv9lozyeb3ap style=”display:inline”}

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  1. [Slavery before and after the independance]{.c4}

[]{.c0}

  • [slaveholder revolution:]{.c0}

[Gerald Hornes - says that africans in the colonies supported britain for the abolitionism while the slaveholders feared the decree from London]{.c0}

[]{.c0}

[between the founding fathers of the United States there were important slaveholders, freedom meant liberty to have slaves]{.c0}

[]{.c0}

  • [mixed impact of revolution on slavery:]{.c0}

[the revolution had a mixed impact]{.c0}

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  1. [The American Revolution, centered on Americans' right to control their property, including slaves, reinforced American commitment to slavery]{.c0}
  2. [slavery was challenged from Revolutionary ideals and from the evangelical religious commitment]{.c0}

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  • [after the revolution:]{.c0}

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[in the North slavery was outlawed after the end of the war, but racism persisted]{.c0}

[]{.c0}

[in the south free black people increased but]{.c0}

  1. [in South Carolina and Georgia the elite became stronger]{.c0}
  2. [in 1845 texas reintroduced slavery]{.c0}

[]{.c0}

[B) Slavery and the aftermath of slavery]{.c4}

[]{.c4}

[slavery was abolish in the United States after the American Civil War (1861-1865) between the 11 Confederate states against the Union]{.c0}

[]{.c0}

[1865: emancipation of the african american people with the 13th amendment (formation of  ]{.c0}

[          secret societies like the Klu Klux Klan) ]{.c0}

[]{.c0}

[1875: state law mostly in the South establish a de facto aparthaid in the USA]{.c0}

[]{.c0}

[under the pressure of the Civil Rights Movement in the 50s and early 60s, the government writes the Civil Rights Act to overcome the so called “Jim Crows Laws”]{.c0}

[]{.c0}

[exception for slavery: incarcerated people as forced labour]{.c0}

[]{.c0}

[in the 90s mass incarceration became a popular phenomenon (25% of the world population)]{.c0}

  • [prisons were privatized, making them a source of profit]{.c0}
  • [sponsor of these legislations: Joe Biden]{.c0}

[]{.c0}

  1. [Westward expansion and native population  ]{.c9} {#h.ldegwne101g0 style=”display:inline”}

[when the United States were founded the comprised about 15% of the present territory, with the revolution the process of territorial expansion began]{.c0}

[]{.c0}

[the revolution was already part of the process since with the Treaty of paris they got land]{.c0}

[]{.c0}

[the land south and west was obtained through wars and peaceful treaties with Mexico and Britain]{.c0}

[]{.c0}

  • [alaska was purchased in the 1860s by the Russian Empire]{.c0}

[]{.c0}

[the expansion at the cost of native americans was considered a right because they had no notion of private property of land, so they were considered the illegals and driven into reserves (systematic genocide)]{.c0}

  1. [Democratic representation and social structure]{.c9} {#h.mmp2t63ex284 style=”display:inline”}

[american constitution = social structure + tradition of political thought of the 18th century (social contract, rule of the law, republicanism)]{.c0}

[]{.c0}

[social structure: slaves, free blacks, farmers (living in small farms), middle class (lawyers and doctors), gentry (landowners, merchants)]{.c0}

[]{.c0}

[all attempts at recreating a society like the ancien regime into the colonies failed]{.c0}

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[there was an egalitarian right to vote, representation and representative bodies, self government of the colonies]{.c0}

[]{.c0}

[]{.c0}

[the people elected the president which is a sort of king controlled by judicial powers and elected body of congress (idea inspired by the idea of law)]{.c0}

[]{.c0}

[participation right to vote:]{.c0}

  • [limited to males and not unlimited (white male citizens could vote depending on the legislation of the state)]{.c0}
  • [black, poor white, natives and women etc. were excluded ]{.c0}
  • [this system was still much more inclusive than european states]{.c0}

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  1. [Knowledge check]{.c9} {#h.ubzmkz2famt4 style=”display:inline”}

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  1. [What was the religious and philosophical background of English settlers?]{.c0}

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  1. [What were the contingent issues that gave rise to revolutionary upheaval?]{.c0}

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  1. [To which philosophical sources relate the Declaration and the Constitution?]{.c0}

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  1. [Could the legal conditions of slaves immediately benefit from Independence?]{.c0}

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  1. [On which philosophical ground westward expansion was considered a "right"?]{.c0}

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  1. [How comprehensive were the rights for political participation?]{.c0}

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