Arca Unit 6

[Industrial Revolution in Europe 1750-1914 ]{.c11}

[]{.c1}

[1. The Characteristics of the Industrial Revolution]{.c5} {#h.mslkt6mp7uv9 .c10}

[the main factors of british industrialization:]{.c1}

  • [ colonialism (the colonies provided raw materials), mercantile capitalism and]{.c1}

[overseas trade]{.c1}

  • [corporate enterprise and stock exchange]{.c1}
  • [agricultural improvement, enclosures, land circulation]{.c1}
  • [political system, mercantilism:]{.c1}

[the liberal climate present in Great Britain at that time, which supported investment and market-oriented economic sectors, granting political participation for the nobility and the upper class]{.c1}

  • [mentality of the nobility: ]{.c1}

[they became increasingly enterprise-oriented and adopted a capitalistic mentality]{.c1}

  • [monetary stability and banking system: ]{.c1}

[they spread from the city to the countryside agriculture became market-oriented and the agriculture served external markets. this distinguished Britain from continental Europe, where the nobility didn’t even think of investing their money is ‘bourgeois’ enterprises]{.c1}

  • [proto-industry]{.c1}
  • [technological innovation transport system and development of infrastructures]{.c1}
  • [economic geography of the british island: ]{.c1}

[strategic location of layers of iron close to the seaports, which made the cost of these raw materials low this was an advantage compared to France, where prices were higher]{.c1}

  • [state institutions:]{.c1}

[the monarchy controlled the currency, which was homogeneous throughout the kingdom and created optimal circumstances for a stable monetary system; protectionist measures were also taken sometimes to boost Britain’s own production]{.c1}

  • [adoption of free trade policies:]{.c1}

[they were convenient for the british because they were the main trading power]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[2. Belgium and Switzerland: a comparison ]{.c5} {#h.dgehzki0m0gd .c10}

[first two countries that completed the industrialization process: Belgium and Switzerland]{.c1}

[↳ proof of regional specialization:]{.c1}

  • [areas of Belgium: specialised in cotton, wool, coal and the manufacturing industry]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[Belgium]{.c8}[:]{.c1}

[John Cockerill: the man who introduced mechanised textile production in Wallonia, close to a nearby wool district (example of interregional dynamics)]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[Cockerill became a corporation in the coal industry, the steel industry and the engineering industry, and emerged as the biggest producer of steam engines, locomotives and machine tools]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[soon the knowledge spread from belgium to other regions of europe ]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[the Botrange region in Belgium, the coal mines in the plains needed huge investments ]{.c1}

  • [due to the need of capital, the royal institutions and the banks in Belgium formed]{.c1}

[the Societè General in order to become stock owners of coal mines (this was the first time banks were directly involved in industry]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[Switzerland]{.c8}[:]{.c1}

[industries located in small rural sites = workers were owners of small lands and part-time farmers.]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

  • [watch making and pharmaceutical industry]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[the swiss industrialization process happened without smoke or the involvement of big cities unlikely from Britain]{.c1}

  • [use of textile machine alimented by water wheels and turbines = advantage in the development of electrotechnical industries]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[Switzerland was able to preserve its delicate ecosystems + grant jobs to small labourers in the countryside]{.c1}

  • [machines tools are at the core of the industrial revolution, not the steam engine]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[3. French industrialization in comparison with the British case ]{.c5} {#h.mslkt6mp7uv9-1 .c10}

[France, with Russia was the most populous country in Europe, and also the most culturally and technologically developed, but lost to Britain in the 19th century]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[France seemed to have the best pre conditions:]{.c1}

  • [corporate entrepreneurship in the glass, gas, chemicals, and sugar industries]{.c1}
  • [science oriented innovations]{.c1}
  • [had the best infrastructure and lands in Europe, while Britain’s were quite poor because the state did not invest in these sectors]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[it was due to the Napoleonic era that French industrial development came to a stand-still]{.c1}

[and came to lag behind Britain during the industrial revolution]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[disadvantages:]{.c1}

  • [loss of colonies]{.c1}
  • [less export oriented]{.c1}
  • [family capitalism in textile and iron industry]{.c1}
  • [nobility conservative views]{.c1}
  • [the emergence of a peasantry middle-class ownership of land after the revolution that didn’t favour population growth, leading to slow demographic growth]{.c1}
  • [weaker banking system: ]{.c1}

[Lyon was the only industrialised city and banks were only concentrated there; banks mostly invested in real estate and agriculture, which were main sources of instability that contributed to these banks’ crash]{.c1}

  • [economic geography of French territory:]{.c1}

[the location of coal mines and iron mines diverged, and there were no rivers in between; especially before the creation of rail-roads, the integration between the two sectors could not occur]{.c1}

  • [inability of French agricultural and industrial producers to meet the growing worldwide competition for markets after the fall of Napoleon]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[4. Railroads and universal banking: features of German industrialization]{.c5} {#h.mslkt6mp7uv9-2 .c10}

[german unification: 1871 (economically considered as a pre-existing region)]{.c1}

  • [backward compared to mediterranean and east Europe]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[the industrialization process sped up in the 1840/50s with railroad building]{.c1}

[during the second industrial revolution the chemical and the sugar industry became german trademarks]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[the building of railroads increased the demand of coal, steel and iron (engineering industry) and made the local markets homogenous]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[conservative, not liberal:]{.c1}

[presence of high-quality work force in the engineering industry, which produced German]{.c1}

[engines to be exported at high prices.]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[source of capital: ]{.c1}

[joint stock banks - not specialised banks that were spread throughout the entire territory, not limiting themselves to nobility (they integrated finance and industry)]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[5. Industrial regions in Italy, Spain, and the Hapsburg Empire and Russian Empire]{.c5} {#h.mslkt6mp7uv9-3 .c10}

[Italy:]{.c12 .c8}

[Piedmont and Lombardy were the old industrial regions that were fully industrialized by 1900, Liguria industrializes as a maritime terminal of the industrial heartland and other regions underwent a industrialization process, such as in Veneto (wool), Tuscany (metallurgy, engineering) and a few other regions]{.c1}

[]{.c8 .c12}

[Spain]{.c8}[:]{.c1}

[Catalonia was the old industrial centre of the country, with the spreading of the textile industry the region was industrialized by 1900. New industrial complexes were built on the atlantic coastline and singular industrial sites in central and southern Spain]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[Hapsburg Empire:]{.c12 .c8}

[Bohemia, central Austria, Vorarlberg were the old industrial textile regions, with important metallurgical and engineering industries in central Bohemia and Austria, electrotechnical industry in Budapest and Shipyards in Trieste]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[Russian Empire:]{.c12 .c8}

there[ was a great attempt at industrialization after 1880, which resulted in a state railroad net, coal, iron and steel industry, important industries in major urban centers such as Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Poland. Russia was a strong industrial country, but not an industrialized one]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[6. The path of the USA]{.c5} {#h.mslkt6mp7uv9-4 .c10}

  • [large population: bigger local market than Europe]{.c1}
  • [the USA was big on capital good while Europe had to rely on the colonies]{.c1}

[↓]{.c1}

[high wages and demand of consumer goods]{.c1}

[(in Europe low wages favoured industrialisation but limited the demand of the working class)]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

  • [while Europe aimed new technology to save capital, the USA used technology to save labour and not capital]{.c1}
  • [marketing was a key element in american economy while in Europe it was irrelevant ]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[Asia and Europe]{.c12 .c8}

[GDP per capita: parameter of average productivity of a country]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[1500s - Italy, Spain, Japan, Britain, rance, Germany, India and China:]{.c1}

[around the same GPA level until the mid 17th century]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[after 1650s: northern Europe, mostly Britain and the Netherlands took the lead while asian countries fell behind]{.c1}

  • [India and China became poor countries, they will start to recover only in around 1980]{.c1}
  • Japan was started its industrialization process around 1850s

[7. Overview: Wealth, capitalism, urbanization, demographic development]{.c5} {#h.mslkt6mp7uv9-5 .c10}

[The leading industries during the Industrial Revolution were:]{.c1}

  1. [760-1840: textiles, coal, iron, steam engine]{.c1}
  2. [ 1840-1880: railways, steamships]{.c1}
  3. [ 1880-1920: chemicals, steel, electricity, internal combustion motors, automobiles]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[the effects on wealth and economic growth were:]{.c1}

  1. [increase in productivity through mechanisation in the cotton industry from 1750 to 1825]{.c1}
  2. [increase in productivity in the iron industry in Great Britain from 1790 to 1860]{.c1}
  3. [increase in income per capita, especially in Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy and the USA]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[population growth in Europe (1750-1900):]{.c1}

[from 150 million to 400 million inhabitants]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[urbanization in Europe (1801-91):]{.c1}

[urban population rises from 17% to 54%]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[8. Knowledge check]{.c5} {#h.culpksm6cnbz .c10}

  1. [Which were the main factors of British industrialization? ]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

  1. [What does the comparison between the Belgian and Swiss cases tell us about the role of steam engines?]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

  1. [Was France dramatically late if compared to British industrialization? ]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

  1. [What were the main patterns of German industrialization? ]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

  1. [Did industry spread in the European space according to a national or regional pattern? ]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

  1. [What was different in the American technological trajectory if compared to the European one?]{.c1}

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