Arca Unit 4


[European Timeline 1776-1914]{.c10 .c16}

[1500-1900: Europe is the leader in the technological, cultural and economical field]{.c1}

the long 19th century is the climax of the european supremacy worldwide

[]{.c10 .c11}

[1750-1914: two processes marked a turn in human affairs]{.c1}

  1. [breakthrough of modern societies derived from the industrial revolution]{.c1}
  2. [global extensions of european and north american political economic and cultural power over the rest of the world ]{.c1}

[1. ]{.c10}[factors of european worldwide dominance]{.c7} {#h.vlaapmf02qxr .c9}

[the change was caused by the industrial revolution, which created an imbalance in wealth, power and productivity]{.c1}


[ Why did the industrial revolution take place in Europe?]{.c1}

  • [favorable environment]{.c1}

[good climate for agriculture, cheap materials, energy availability]{.c1}

  • [advantage of backwardness ]{.c1}

[Europe was not good at manufacturing, the knowledge was brought from India and China]{.c1}

  • [science and technologies]{.c1}

[predisposition to scientific discovery and engineer mentality]{.c1}

  • [mentality]{.c1}

[more women were allowed to work in order to have more work force, late marriages caused less population growth, so the riches were shared between less people]{.c1}

  • [competition ]{.c1}

political disunity cause more competition between individuals and states

[2. ]{.c10}[critics of eurocentrism]{.c7} {#h.uigvhd9l6d8z .c9}

[     objections against the european uniqueness argument:]{.c1}

  • [the similarities outweighed the differences ]{.c1}

[they both had free markets, rich agricultural production]{.c1}

  • [competition and transfer ]{.c1}

[India and the Ottoman Empire dominate the textile industry, which was stolen from britain to then make protectionist policies]{.c1}

  • [political decline of the East which made possible for Europe to gain prominence]{.c1}


[      advantages of the West: colonies]{.c1}

  • [materials]{.c1}

[Europe stole materials from american colonies to trade with Asia (later also from Africa) to benefit their markets]{.c1}

  • [colonial markets]{.c1}

[Asia, Africa and colonies in America became export markets which stimulated the West capitalism, investing in new machines and factories]{.c1}

  • [plantation system as an industrial model]{.c1}

[plantations involved a capital investment where disciplined work serves the market]{.c1}


[3. ]{.c10}[synthesis of the european wave of revolutions ]{.c7} {#h.umbcf1axs7au .c9}

[after the French Revolution Napoleon wanted to conquer Europe to unite it under french guidance ]{.c1}

[he was defeated in 1914 and 1915 in Waterloo, which lead to the Congress of Vienna where Europe was redesigned ]{.c1}


[purpose: to maintain peace in Europe, to fend off revolutions, constitutional movements and republicanism]{.c1}

  • [it was respected until the Crimean War in the 1850s (France+Great Britain/Russian Empire)]{.c1}


[the peace order was lead by:]{.c1}

  • [Russia]{.c1}
  • [Prussia]{.c1}
  • [Austria ]{.c1}
  • [Great Britain]{.c1}

[(the Ottoman Empire was excluded from the treaties)]{.c1}


[constitutionalist insurrections:]{.c1}

  • [1830:]{.c7} {#h.vr5s5bz2bgfv style=”display:inline”}

[emergin of resistance by liberals against the new order]{.c1}

  • [1820: soldiers meant to go to south America to stop the independence movement revolted in Cadiz, forcing the government to restore the liberal constitution of Cadiz]{.c1}


[this caused insurrections also in other countries such as:]{.c1}

  • [southern Italy with Guglielmo Pepe]{.c1}
  • [Portugal ]{.c1}
  • [Russia in the Decembrist revolt in 1825]{.c1}
  • [France: caused by the insatisfaction of the bourgeois toward the restrictions imposed by the monarch on the political participation]{.c1}


[the Paris Revolution was perceived mainly in two countries:]{.c1}

  1. [Belgium, which had been incorporated into the Dutch monarchy wanted independence and they succeeded (different religion, culture etc)]{.c1}


  1. [Poland, where the people revolted against the Russian control, but it was a failure ]{.c1}


[the Paris Revolution also has minor effect in Germany and Italy, but failed]{.c1}

[ ]{.c1}

  • [1848]{.c10}[:]{.c8} {#h.6crrn8sm7c28 style=”display:inline”}

[regions not touched: Great Britain, Iberic peninsula, scandinavian countries, Ottoman and Russian Empire (except for attempts of unification)]{.c1}





[all the other countries were involved in the revolutionary movements ]{.c1}

  • [demanding for a constitution, hope of the french revolution frustrated by the Congress of Vienna, political participation for the elites, national unification (ex. Germany and Italy) or independence (ex. Habsburg Empire)]{.c1}


[there were fault lines between revolutionaries]{.c1}


  1. [ moderate liberals / socialist, democratic and republicans]{.c1}
  • [moderate liberals for constitutional monarchies]{.c1}

[            (fulfilled by constitutions and political participation for the bourgeois elites)]{.c1}

  • [socialists, democratic and republicans ]{.c1}

[            (their wished weren’t fulfilled so they used military forces)]{.c1}

[                    ]{.c1}

  1. [bourgeois forces / proletariat              ]{.c1}
  • [bourgeois forces]{.c1}
  • [manifestations of proletarian movements]{.c1}


  1. [main goals]{.c1}
  • [moderate liberals: political participation]{.c1}
  • [socialists, democratic and republicans: nationalism]{.c1}


[the national was more important than political participation (new fenomenon)]{.c1}


[the revolution was defeated, but the revolutionary claims coundtn be stopped in the long run ]{.c1}

[which is evident because of all the states created in the next decades until World War I]{.c1}


[4. synthesis of new nation states in Europe]{.c7} {#h.umbcf1axs7au-1 .c9}

[age of international and cultural solidarity]{.c1}


[1. first movement for national independency: Greece (1821-29)]{.c1}

  • [ends with the Battle of Adrianople, when the Ottoman Empire conceded the independence ]{.c1}


[2. Poland, which didn’t gain the independence but attracted a lot of attention]{.c1}


[3. Italy (Risorgimento, also used in other languages)]{.c1}


  • [retreat of the Ottoman Empire from the balkans forced by nationalist movements]{.c1}
  • [the most important unifications are Germany and Italy (they eliminated many buffer states which were restore by the Congress)]{.c1}
  • [the Habsburg Empire will be split in different countries after World War I]{.c1}

[5. knowledge check]{.c10 .c17} {#h.kq519udgjo3z .c13}

  1. What did political structures, science and ideology weight for the western strive[ for world dominance?]{.c1}


  1. [Were economic and population growth, markets, personal enterprise and trade only European features?]{.c1}


  1. [Which parts of Europe were not involved in the revolutionary upheaval of 1848-49?]{.c1}

[Great Britain, Iberic peninsula, scandinavian region, Ottoman and Empire]{.c1}


  1. [What were the years of Greek, Italian, German, Serbian independence?]{.c1}

[Greece:1830, Italy:1861, Germany:1871, Serbia:1878]{.c1}



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