Third World, political Islam, decline of Soviet communism

The Nonalignment movement

emergence of cold war bipolarity, decline of European powers, beginning of internationalization: movement of emancipation of countries struggling to develop their own networks

non-aligned movement: forum of 120 developing world states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc

conferences:

  1. 1954, Colombo conference:
    India, Pakistan, Burma, Ceylon and Indonesia, against colonialism and the nuclear arms race in favor of peace and détente
  2. 1955, Bandung conference:
  3. 29 states (for the most part were neutral)  opposed to both colonialism and neocolonialism not only by the European powers  but also by the United States and the Soviet Union
    resolution: Ten principles of Bandung
  4. 1961, Belgrad NAM conference:
    25 states, criteria for membership:  independent policy, support of independence movements, no membership in multilateral military alliances with Great Powers, no efficiency of bilateral military alliances with Great Powers in the case of conflict, no offer of military bases at the disposal of Great Powers in the case of conflict

  5. [The idea of a "Third World" ]{.c7} {#h.7upefp2t969k style=”display:inline”}

[1900: 57 countries, grown to 192 in 2000, they see colonial rule as the real reason for their backwardness and poverty]{.c4}

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[economic claims:]{.c4}

  • [success of OPEC in the 1970s]{.c4}
  • [claims for a New International Economic Order • resistance of the rich countries]{.c4}
  • [1970-95: increasing debt of Third World countries]{.c4}
  • [1995-2000: IMF ‘concedes’ some debt cancellations]{.c4}
  • [after 1970: growing wealth in oil exporting countries]{.c4}
  • [after 1990: growing wealth in manufacturing countries]{.c4}

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[the movement remains halfway between the two major powers in the world (USA/URSS):]{.c4}

  • [Indonesia-China: they went from pro URSS in the 60s to pro USA in the 80s ]{.c4}
  • [Arab countries: externally pro URSS, internally anti-communist ]{.c4}
  • [Countries fighting for independence militarily depending on the USSR ]{.c4}
  • [Countries with economic problems depending on Western aid ]{.c4}
  • [Armed conflicts: India vs Pakistan, China vs Vietnam, Iraq vs Iran, Hutu vs Tutsi in Rwanda etc. ]{.c4}

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  1. [The rise of political Islam ]{.c7} {#h.vqdggeecdkbd style=”display:inline”}

[nationalism and independence movements]{.c9}[ :]{.c4}

  • [independence movements of secular and nationalist character  ]{.c4}
  • [military élites strong role in many Islamic countries  ]{.c4}
  • [secular republican political systems  ”Arab socialist” political programs  post-colonial “oil monarchies” prosper and gain influence  ]{.c4}
  • [modernizing and secularizing orientations]{.c4}

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[crisis of the secular political orientation]{.c9}[:]{.c4}

  • [corrupt governments and failed economic modernization ]{.c4}
  • [growing social inequality  ]{.c4}
  • [demographic dynamism and youth unemployment  ]{.c4}
  • [frustration over Israeli victories and backing by the U.S.  ]{.c4}
  • repression of political participation

[]{.c4}

[Islamic criticism]{.c9}:

  • [lack of honest government and social equality  ]{.c4}
  • [decay and humiliation of Muslim societies attributed to a moral and religious decay]{.c4}
  • [criticism of Western influence because of consumerism, materialism, immoral lifestyle, feminism  ]{.c4}
  • [criticism of Soviet communism for the atheist and materialist worldview of communism]{.c4}

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[Islamic program]{.c9}[  ]{.c4}

  • [substitute secular institutions with institutions that conform to the practices establish by the Prophet Muhammad  ]{.c4}
  • [overcome a-religious lifestyles in favor to Islam conform lifestyle  ]{.c4}
  • [overcome the separation of religion and state as Islam regulates all aspects of human life]{.c4}

[]{.c4}

[Muslim parties and governments (also temporarily):]{.c9 .c15}

  • [Saudi-Arabia, Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sudan  ]{.c4}
  • [overthrown elected Islamic parties in Algeria, Egypt]{.c4}

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[]{.c7} {#h.mj5o4n7bhpxc .c11}

  1. [The Communist collapse]{.c7} {#h.szsx0333m3ch style=”display:inline”}

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[Poland]{.c9}[:]{.c4}

  • [1978 Wojtyla elected Pope  ]{.c4}
  • [1980 Solidarność founded  1981-83 Martial Law  ]{.c4}
  • [1989 Roundtable  ]{.c4}
  • [1990 Lech Walesa elected President]{.c4}
  • [1979 New round of armaments race (cruise missiles)  ]{.c4}
  • [1979-89 Soviet intervention in Afghanistan  ]{.c4}
  • [1985 Mikhail Gorbachev general secretary of the Communist Party  ]{.c4}
  • [1986 Start of "economic restructuring" (perestroika)  ]{.c4}
  • [1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant explosion  ]{.c4}
  • [1986 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty USA-URSS  ]{.c4}
  • [1987-90 Food and clothing shortages  ]{.c4}
  • [1991 Gorbachev resigns, Yeltsin takes over  ]{.c4}
  • [1991 USSR collapses]{.c4}

[]{.c4}

[Eastern Europe]{.c9}[:  ]{.c4}

  • [1989-90 Stepping-down or overthrow of communist led governments in Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, GDR, Bulgaria  ]{.c4}
  • [1990-91 Independence of former USSR Republics: Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Ukraine, Belorussia, etc.  ]{.c4}
  • [1991-92 Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia declare independence from Yugoslavia  ]{.c4}
  • [1992-96 Yugoslav wars]{.c4}

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[China]{.c9}[:  ]{.c4}

  • [1976 Mao dies  ]{.c4}
  • [1978 Deng Xiaoping leader of China  ]{.c4}
  • [1978 Start of economic reform (liberalization measures)  ]{.c4}
  • [1989 Tiananmen Square protests ]{.c4}
  • [1989 Jiang Zemin General Secretary of CPC  ]{.c4}
  • 1991 first McDonald's restaurant

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