Arca Unit 21

[The affirmation of Communism and the USA-USSR confrontation]{.c12}

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  1. [The Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Chinese Revolution of 1949 ]{.c3} {#h.d0a3sspyvoz6 style=”display:inline”}

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[Revolution in China 1949]{.c1}

  • [common resistance against Japan 1937]{.c0}
  • [Civil War Kuomintang/Communists 1946-49]{.c0}
  • [battle of Manchuria lost by nationalists]{.c0}
  • [Mao Zedong proclaims the People's Republic]{.c0}
  • [Kuomintang retreats to Taiwan 1949]{.c0}

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[Revolution in Russia 1917 ]{.c1}

  • [the Revolution of 1905]{.c0}
  • [the February Revolution of 1917 ]{.c0}
  • [the October Revolution of 1917 ]{.c0}
  • [the Civil War of 1918–20 ]{.c0}
  • [foundation of the USSR 1922]{.c0}

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  1. [Industrialization and repression under Communist régimes]{.c3} {#h.k8fyfhqcg9yh style=”display:inline”}

[the Great Purge of 1936 - 1938:]{.c6}[ millions arrested and imprisoned (similar to the Cultural Revolution in China in the 1960s)]{.c0}

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[October 1936 – February 1937]{.c0}

  • [reforming the security organizations, official plans on purging the elites. March ]{.c0}

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[1937 – June 1937]{.c0}

  • [purging the elites; adopting plans for the mass repressions ]{.c0}

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[July 1937 – October 1938]{.c0}

[mass repressions against "kulaks", "dangerous" ethnic minorities, military officers, "saboteurs" in agriculture and industry]{.c0}

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[November 1938 – 1939]{.c0}

  • [stopping of mass operations, abolishing of many organs of extrajudicial executions, repressions against some organizers]{.c0}

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  1. [Cold War in an "American Century"]{.c3} {#h.5f858131fm2a style=”display:inline”}

1947 - [Truman doctrine of “Containment”]{.c6}[ against communism:]{.c0}

  1. [deployment of US bases around the world]{.c0}
  2. [military or CIA interventions in Korea, Lebanon, Libya, El Salvador, Grenada, Honduras, Bolivia, Vietnam, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Iran, Chile, Guatemala, Haití, Panamá]{.c0}
  3. subversive activity and government overthrow in various countries (ex. election meddling): ex. Italy, Greece, Costa Rica, Albania, Siria, Korea[ etc.]{.c0}

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[military confrontation]{.c6}[:]{.c0}

  • [U.S. nuclear bomb dropped in 1945 / Soviet nuclear bomb program in 1949]{.c0}
  • [Korean War in 1950-53]{.c0}
  • [NATO created in 1949 / Warsaw Pact created in 1955]{.c0}
  • [Cuba crisis over ballistic missile deployment 1962]{.c0}
  • [Pershing II and arms race / Soviet collapse in the 1980s]{.c0}

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  1. [Cultural empire and anti-Americanism]{.c3} {#h.khfmjf10ffjx style=”display:inline”}

[presence of american culture in music, tv shows, fashion, science, design movies etc. (considered as political success)]{.c0}

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[Joseph Nye: “Bound to Lead”, 1990]{.c0}

[the irreversible transformation of american power over the other countries of the world would from now on characterize american foreign policy]{.c0}

  • [in 1994, Christopher Simpson, “Power of Coercion” pointed out that soft countries of the world have a asymmetric power]{.c0}

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[in the 1990s the rising faction of the neocons, in the attempt to create a new american century American will get the global role to keep international peace, and to do so blood will be spilled]{.c0}

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[anti americanism:]{.c0}

[the countries targeted by american power for intervention started a process of rejection to everything that could be considered american (aesthetics and symbols: ex. coca cola)]{.c0}

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[Anti-Americanism or political criticism? ]{.c1}

[Brendon O'Connor suggests that antiAmericanism cannot be isolated as a consistent phenomenon and that the term originated from stereotypes, prejudices and criticisms toward Americans or the United States, evolving to more politically based criticism. French scholar Marie-France Toinet says use of the term is only fully justified if it implies systematic opposition to America as a whole]{.c0}

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the[ opposition was not towards America as a whole but towards its power force, exploitation and entitlement to other territories around the world.]{.c0}

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