Arca Unit 20

[World War II and the Shoa]{.c10}

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  1. [World War II: origins, alliances, overview ]{.c8} {#h.lus4jw3h3mt style=”display:inline”}

[dates: September 1st 1939 (german invasion of Poland) to September 2nd 1945]{.c0}

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[main battlefields: Europe, Pacific and Atlantic Ocean, South Asia, China, Middle East, North Africa and the Mediterranean (60 millions of soldiers and civilians dead)]{.c0}

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[alliances:]{.c0}

  1. [the Axis: nazi Germany, fascist Italy and Imperial Japan]{.c0}
  2. [the Allies: France, Great Britain, USA, Soviet Union and China]{.c0}

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  1. [Chronology and major turning points, 1939-45]{.c8} {#h.b970eg1grx8s style=”display:inline”}

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[1939 outbreak of World War II:]{.c5 .c11}

  • [September, 1: German invasion of Poland ]{.c0}

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[1940]{.c5}[: ]{.c0}

  • [German occupation on France, Belgium, Netherlands, Denmark, Norway]{.c0}
  • [German attempt to invade Great Britain fails]{.c0}
  • [Italy declares war on Great Britain]{.c0}
  • [Cyrenaica: Italians occupy Sīdī Barrānī ]{.c0}

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[1941]{.c5}[:]{.c0}

  • [German-Italian occupation of Yugoslavia and Greece ]{.c0}
  • [June: German invasion of the Soviet Union]{.c0}
  • [December: Red Army counter-offensive starts]{.c0}
  • [December: Japanese attack on the U.S. naval basis of Pearl Harbour]{.c0}
  • [U.S. Declaration of war on Japan]{.c0}

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[1942]{.c5}[:]{.c0}

  • [Japanese expansion in South-East Asia and the Pacific]{.c0}
  • [German-Italian defeat in North Africa ]{.c0}

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[1943]{.c5}[:]{.c0}

  • [February, German surrender at Stalingrad]{.c0}
  • [the German retreat from the Soviet Union begins]{.c0}
  • [July–August, Allies’s invasion of Sicily and the fall of Mussolini ]{.c0}

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[1944]{.c5}[:]{.c0}

  • [ June–November, the Allied invasions of western Europe Allies’ strategic bombing]{.c0}

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[1945]{.c5}[:]{.c0}

  • [February 4–11, Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill meet at Yalta, in Crimea]{.c0}
  • [May, 4: German surrender;]{.c0}
  • [July 17 - August 2, the Soviet, U.S., and British heads of government and foreign ministers at Potsdam]{.c0}
  • [August 6, U.S. air force drops an atomic bomb on Hiroshima killing 100,000 people; later another on Nakasaki]{.c0}

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  1. [Germany’s anti-Jewish extermination policy, 1941-44]{.c8} {#h.lazem0vpmgua style=”display:inline”}

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[1941, June-December]{.c5}[:]{.c0}

  • [invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941]{.c0}
  • [special mobile killing squads begin systematically shooting the Jewish population]{.c0}
  • [from summer to the end of 1941, the German forces kill about 1,400,000 people ]{.c0}

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[1942, January]{.c5}[:]{.c0}

  • [Wannsee Conference of Nazi and SS chiefs in January 1942 ]{.c0}
  • [decision that European Jews would be deported and sent to camps in eastern Poland where they would be killed en masse or made to work as slave labourers until they perished ]{.c0}

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[1942, May - September, 1944]{.c5}[:]{.c0}

  • [in the period from May 1942 to September 1944 Jews were killed in such death camps as Auschwitz, Treblinka, Belzec, Chełmno, Majdanek, and Sobibor.]{.c0}
  • [more than 4,200,000 Jews died in the these camps]{.c0}
  • [about 5,700,000 Jews died in the course of the Final Solution.]{.c0}

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  1. [The results of the war]{.c8} {#h.41cnbu862kqe style=”display:inline”}

[despite winning the war, the UK lost most of its empire (accorded with the USA in the Atlantic Charter, 1941)]{.c0}

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[the war brought the revival of the american economy, which benefit also from the destruction in Europe: predominant economic power in the world]{.c0}

  • [Cold War: confrontation between the two major political powers at the time (USA and URSS)]{.c0}

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[the fall of the Soviet Union gave birth to a bunch of independent states in the balcan regions]{.c0}

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