Arca Unit 18

[World War I]{.c7}

  1. [gradual escalation of ‘regional’ conflicts among great powers]{.c8} {#h.vkd3vyxtiz5b style=”display:inline”}

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  1. [tensions among great powers + changing alliances 1892-1914]{.c1}
  • [growing British-German competition ]{.c1}
  • [1897 Greek-Turkish War for Crete]{.c1}
  • [1905-06 and 1911 Moroccan crises ]{.c1}
  • [1908 Young Turk Revolution]{.c1}
  • [1908 Annexation of Bosnia by the Hapsburg Empire]{.c1}
  • [1911 Italian colonial wars against Libya, Greece, Ottoman Empire ]{.c1}
  • [1912 First BalKan War (Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, Greece vs Turkey) ]{.c1}
  • [1913 Second Balkan War (Bulgaria vs Serbia, Greece for Macedonia)]{.c1}

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  1. [the triggers:]{.c1}
  • [1914, 28 June: Archduke Franz Ferdinand shot dead by Gavrilo Princip at Sarajevo ]{.c1}
  • [1914, 28 July: Austria declares war on Serbia ]{.c1}
  • [1914, August: Germany attacks Russia, France, Belgium, Great Britain intervenes]{.c1}

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  1. [the ‘Entente’ and the ‘Central Powers’ ]{.c8} {#h.vkd3vyxtiz5b-1 style=”display:inline”}

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[Central Powers: Germany, Austria, Hungary, Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria]{.c1}

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[Entente: France, UK, Russia, Montenegro, Serbia, Italy, Portugal, Greece, Ireland ]{.c1}

[                          Romania United States, China Japan etc]{.c1}

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[western front: ]{.c1}

  • [Germany started invading France through the neutral Belgium, which make the UK enter the conflict]{.c1}
  • [the was was developing in the trenches]{.c1}
  • [on Christmas 1914 german and french soldiers familiarized and the headquarters suppressed this phenomenon with hateful propaganda]{.c1}
  • [in Italy the Socialist Party was the only one that stood against the imperialist war]{.c1}
  • [Italy remained neutral for one year, but nationalist and democratic force pushed to enter the war to complete the “risorgimento process”, and conquest South Tyrol, Dalmazia and Trieste]{.c1}
  • [Germany and Austria conquered many baltic countries and in 1917 the conflict ended in a civil war ]{.c1}
  • [in Russia the economic problem caused by the war caused a revolution in 1917 and the bolsheviks came to power]{.c1}

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  1. [technology, mechanization, industry, labor force mobilization ]{.c8} {#h.vkd3vyxtiz5b-2 style=”display:inline”}

[new technology used in World War I : machine guns, armaments, automobiles, artillery became more mobile, submarines, bombardments, chemical gases]{.c1}

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[the use of chemical gases became an incentive to develop the research and development of this chemical and pharmaceutical industries]{.c1}

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[social consequences: ]{.c1}

  • [creation of common belonging between the soldiers against the headquarters of war]{.c1}

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[how could they handle this high productivity? women]{.c1}

[in the 19th century women were relegated to the domestic sphere, but the war forces society to use women for productivity]{.c1}

  • [after the war many countries introduced women's suffrage]{.c1}

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  1. [a new global power rises, while empires break down]{.c8} {#h.vkd3vyxtiz5b-3 style=”display:inline”}

[by the end of the 10th century the USA were already the centre of the industrial power, but financially the power of the dollar was not recognized internationally]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[the end of the war inaugurated the beginning of the american century]{.c1}

  • [France and the UK won the war thanks to american financial help, which resulted in big debt (beginning of decline of european imperialism)]{.c1}

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[geopolitical changes: the end of the Austro Hunagrian Empire created a bunch of independent states in central easterneurope and the balkans]{.c1}

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[Italy obtained Bolzano and trento but not Trieste and Fiume (the nationalists desires were not satisfied) and with Romania and Germany, a new sense of revanche was created, this all contributed to the start of the second conflict]{.c1}

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[Middle East:]{.c1}

[the ottoman empire was divided into protectorate guided by the UK and France (states that will achieve independence after the second conflict)]{.c1}

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in 1917 the foreign affairs secretary Balfour stated that Britain would support the creation of a jewish states in Palestine (source of present geopolitical realities)

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