Arca Unit 17

[World Timeline: 1914-2003 ]{.c14}

[the short 20th century]{.c2}

  1. [on the timeline: Independence of India, Indonesia, and African countries, 1947-89 ]{.c11} {#h.apma06h5j59x style=”display:inline”}

[after World War II two major countries gained independence]{.c2}


[India - 1949: ]{.c0 .c8}


[1915: Gandhi, leader of the Indian nationalist movement in South Africa, turns back to India; 1932: Gandhi resumes the civil disobedience movement ]{.c2}

[1935: the Congress obtains the Government of India Act ]{.c2}

[1935: the Muslim League disputes the claim of the Congress to represent all India]{.c2}

[1942-45: Quit India movement; Congress leaders arrested]{.c2}

[1945-47: violent clashes between Muslims and Hindu ]{.c2}

[1947: The British Parliament decides partitioning India into India and Pakistan ]{.c2}

[1949: Constituent Assembly completes drafting of the constitution]{.c2}

[1950: Proclamation of the Republic of India ]{.c2}

[1951: French cedes the colony of Chandernagore ]{.c2}

[1961: India annexes Goa and other Portoguese colonies ]{.c2}

[1971: Pakistan splits into Pakistan and Bangladesh]{.c2}


[Indonesia 1949-67]{.c0}[:]{.c2}


[1908: Start of the independence movement ]{.c2}

1927: Sukarno founds the later "Partai[ Nasional Indonesia" (PNI) ]{.c2}

[1945: Indonesia declares independence in 1945, Sukarno President]{.c2}

[1945-49: Indonesian War of Independence ]{.c2}

[1949: Dutch recognition of Indonesia's independence, except for "New Guinea" ]{.c2}

[1945-67: Sukarno president 1960: Sukarno allies with the Communist Party (3 million militants) and proclaims Nasakom ("Nationalism, Religion, Communism") ]{.c2}

[1963-65: CIA and MI6 support anti-Sukarno forces in the army, around Suharto, Ali Murtopo, etc., urging the military to “sweep their house clean” ]{.c2}

[1965-66: more than 500,000 communists, Sukarno supporters and Chinese citizens murdered ]{.c2}

[1967: Suharto replaces Sukarno, who is arrested, Murtopo appointed chief of the secret services]{.c2}


  1. [Africa 1952-80]{.c0}[:]{.c2}


[1952-1956: independence of Libya, Sudan, Morocco and Tunisia]{.c2}

[1954-1962: Algerian War]{.c2}

[1956: Suez crisis shows that the USA do not support European colonial anymore]{.c2}

[1957: Ghana (British) independent ]{.c2}

[1958: Guinea (French) independent ]{.c2}

[1960: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Dahomey (later Benin), Gabon, Madagascar, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Mali, Togo]{.c2}

[1961: independence of Sierra Leone and Tanganyika ]{.c2}

[1962-66: independence of Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Zanzibar, Kenya, Malawi, Zambia, Gambia, Botswana and Lesotho ]{.c2}

[1968: independence of Equatorial Guinea (Spanish), Mauritius and Swaziland; ]{.c2}

[1974:-75 independence of Guinea-Bissau, Angola and Mozambique (Portoguese) and West-Sahara (Spain) ]{.c2}

[1977: independence of Djibouti ]{.c2}

[1980: settler-colonist Southern Rhodesia achieved independence under the name of Zimbabwe ]{.c2}

[1989: Namibia de-facto independent after the forced withdrawl of South African forces (1994: End of Apartheid in South Africa)]{.c2}


  • [african socialism: aimed at emphasizing the peculiarities of the local situation and the deep cultural roots of communalism and egalitarianism considered typical of pre-colonial African rural tradition]{.c2}


[post colonialism:]{.c2}

  1. [prime minister Jomo Kenyatta]{.c2}

[African leaders believed that they could take a neutral position in the Cold War. Western European powers granted ‘aid’ to African nations which resulted in coercion forced them to support Western politics and design their politics mindful of Western vigilance]{.c2}


  1. [Patrice Lumumba]{.c2}

[first democratically elected leader of the Congo. Twelve weeks after Congolese independence his government was deposed in a coup because of his attempt to solicit support from the Soviet Union against Katangan secessionists. Assassinated by Belgium and CIA backed forces in Katanga.]{.c2}


[Neo colonialism: involves political and economic control over a dependent territory, but that ]{.c2}

[                            control is now indirect]{.c2}


[built on the achievements of colonialism and the dependency created between colonies and the European countries (western corporations dominate the economic relations)]{.c2}

  • after[ a while, the ex colonies fall in the debt-trap, where they can be conditioned and dominated by the lender countries who dictate the ex colonies' policies.]{.c2}


  1. [on the timeline: the Vietnam war, 1965-74 ]{.c11} {#h.q6crjj11vqff style=”display:inline”}

[1940s: begin of the struggle of Vietnamese communists against French colonial power ]{.c2}

[1954: in the north the nationalist/comunist forces under Ho Chi Minh defeat the French ]{.c2}

[1954-73: split of the country in a communist north and a pro-Western south; as promised elections were never held, guerrilla spread to the south]{.c2}

[1963: southern PM Ngô Đình Diệm assassinated by pro-US generals who erect a military-junta under gen. Minh ]{.c2}

[1964: Gulf of Tonkin alleged "incident" then reported as an attack of North Vietnamese torpedo boats on USS Maddox, which leads to the Congress's Gulf of Tonkin Resolution against "communist aggression" ]{.c2}

[1965: The Johnson administration takes the Resolution as a legal justification for opening war]{.c2}


  • [total deaths: 1.3 millions]{.c2}
  • [chemical welfare: agent orange sprayed on 3 millions vietnamese and veterans]{.c2}


  1. [on the timeline: the Iranian Revolution of 1979]{.c16} {#h.g4vuht19knpe style=”display:inline”}

[1941: Reza Shah forced to abdicate in favor of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi ]{.c2}

[1946: dissolution of the Soviet backed Azerbaijan People's Government and the Republic of Mahabad ]{.c2}

[1951: Mohammad Mosaddegh elected as the prime minister. He became enormously popular in Iran, after he nationalizes Iran's petroleum industry and oil reserves ]{.c2}

[1953: Mosaddegh overthrown by an Iranian coup d'état, endorsed by Anglo-American covert operations]{.c2}

[1953-78: Shah Reza Pahlavi establishes a pro-Western autocratic dictatorship with modernizing ambitions ("White Revolution") ]{.c2}

[1973-74: high oil prices flood the economy with foreign currency and cause high inflation ]{.c2}

[1975-76: economic recession leads to increased unemployment ]{.c2}

[1977: popular opposition movements increase]{.c2}


[the 1978-79 revolution]{.c0}[:]{.c2}


[1978: popular demonstrations and strikes against the political system]{.c2}

[1979, February: Mohammad Reza Pahlavi leaves the country, Ruhollah Khomeini returns from exile ]{.c2}

[April 1979: after a referendum, Iran becomes an Islamic Republic ]{.c2}

[December 1979: another referendum approves a theocratic constitution.]{.c2}

  1. [ Knowledge check]{.c11} {#h.4608wahyvr40 style=”display:inline”}


  1. [what were the major events of the period 1914-2003? ]{.c2}


  1. [did the African countries become independent in the full meaning of the word? ]{.c2}


  1. [what led to the American involvement in Indo-China? ]{.c2}


  1. what were the long-term factors of the Iranian revolution?



edit this page

The following is a graph containing all the notes and every topic in the website