Arca Unit 16

[Theories of Imperialism]{.c10 .c12}

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  1. [“Progress or Exploitation?” Debates on Western imperialism ]{.c6} {#h.8ph3ag5u7mm6 style=”display:inline”}

[european expansion accelerates after 1850]{.c2}

[factors:]{.c2}

  • [military: new technology, discovery of dynamite, improved firearms etc]{.c2}
  • [economic: Europe and the USA was the centre of economic growth, need of raw materials, railroads and telegraphs for administrative control, stream ships]{.c2}

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  1. [Hobson: Earth hunger and the scramble for export markets ]{.c6} {#h.3yyqc02wl0vo style=”display:inline”}

[John A. Hobson, “Imperialism: A Study” (1902)]{.c2}

[first comprehensive systematic analytical study of imperialism]{.c2}

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[philanthropists: today NGOs, used to force imperialism on less developed countries ]{.c2}

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  • [increasing concentration of wealth in the richer countries leads to underconsumption for the mass of people which led to rearmament, moving war to third world countries to get new export markets ]{.c2}
  • [overseas expansion is a way to reduce costs (and thereby increase or maintain profit levels) and to secure new consumption]{.c2}

[]{.c2}

[solution: a “social-liberal reform” ]{.c2}

[overseas expansion is not inevitable, as the State can contribute with policies to increase the income levels and transfer income and wealth from the rich to the poor. by: ]{.c2}

  1. [minimum wage laws and trade union friendly legalization]{.c2}
  2. [progressive taxation and welfare measures]{.c2}

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  1. [Lenin: Structural features of the highest stage of capitalism ]{.c6} {#h.urh9n137lrnz style=”display:inline”}

[Vladimir I. Lenin  - leader of the russian socialist majority wing]{.c2}

[“Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism” + “Introduction to N. Bukharin, Imperialism and World Economy” ]{.c2}

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[Lenin develops this opinions on Hobson work:]{.c2}

[Hobson Takes into account two historically concrete features of modern imperialism ]{.c2}

  1. [the competition between several imperialisms (critique to Kautsky)]{.c2}

[at a mature stage of capitalism, banks and industrial cartels merge into a "finance capitalism" that lead to overaccumulation of capital, so they have to export capital in less developed countries in order to regenerate the extra profit ]{.c2}

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  1. [the predominance of the financier over the merchant”]{.c2}

[this new stage of monopolistic capitalism is sustained by the State on the domestic market because monopolies restrain free competition]{.c2}

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[The State, as an expression of financial capitalist interest, also must intervene abroad to safeguard the monopolies’ possibilities of profit-making; this explains aggressive imperialist foreign policies and the military effort to establish a direct colonial control over Africa, Indo-China and so on]{.c2}

  1. [Amadori Virgilij: Craving for a world-wide moral empire]{.c6} {#h.z0806mpcqbwu style=”display:inline”}

[Giovanni Amadori Virgilj: “Il sentimento imperialista” (1906)]{.c2}

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[the craving for goodness: at the core of imperialism]{.c2}

  • [altruistic concept, they believe they act in the name of civilization]{.c2}
  • [at the core of imperialism lies not economic selfishness but lies the ideology, lies imperialist sentiment]{.c2}

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[inadequacy of all definitions that explain the phenomenon as a result of political and economic tendencies]{.c2}

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  1. [Knowledge check]{.c10} {#h.gjdz1f6rypru style=”display:inline”}

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  1. [what were the main arguments in favor to Western expansion or against it? ]{.c2}

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  1. [what were the causes of imperialism in Hobson’s eyes? ]{.c2}

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  1. [what were the structural causes behind the imperialistic drift according to Lenin? ]{.c2}

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  1. [what is the function of Western philanthropic action according to Hobson?]{.c2}

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  1. [what is the prevailing sentimental basis of imperialism according to Amadori Virgilj?]{.c2}

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