Arca Unit 14

[Global changes: the effects of colonialism and imperialism ]{.c13}

[]{.c3} {#h.nnk9vlt7h774 .c5}

  1. [the effects of colonial imperialism on India ]{.c3} {#h.j6b1z7e6bdp9 style=”display:inline”}

[advantages: railroads, parliamentarism, lingua franca, means of communications]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[India’s share in the manufacturing world decreased of 23.6% in 163 years]{.c1}

  • [with the industrial revolution going on in Britain, India was surpassed by production means and technological advantages (colonial dependency)]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[great famine - 1870s: wheat exports to the UK doubled, food prices soared, no regulation of ]{.c1}

[                                   food prices: laissez faire and free trade, 6-10 million died of hunger]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

  1. [the effects of colonial imperialism on Africa ]{.c3} {#h.39j1wiw41tkx style=”display:inline”}

[]{.c1}

[forced labour and mass terror:]{.c9}

  • [forced labor for infrastructure and public building was adopted by all colonial powers]{.c1}
  • [worst exploitation of all in the Congo Free State (privately owned)]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

            [cash crops:]{.c9}

  • [african farmers stimulated for cash cropping in order to export foodstuff or rubber]{.c1}
  • [peanuts, cocoa, coffee, cotton and other goods for the world market]{.c1}
  • [the income created went to a appreciable extend into the consumption of imported goods (unfavorable terms of trade)]{.c1}
  • [in periods of world market crisis, former African self-sufficiency impossible]{.c1}
  • [general export orientation of African agriculture.]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[loss of land:]{.c9}

  • [increasing land-ownership by European settlers or companies]{.c1}
  • [landless people forced to migrate towards the poor urban areas]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

            [mining and migration:]{.c10}[ ]{.c1}

[                  - western mining companies rely on African labor]{.c1}

[                  - mining creates huge internal migration flows]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

  1. [migration and racism ]{.c3} {#h.1nmk7nlrqlnw style=”display:inline”}

[migration movements 1800-1914]{.c10}[: ]{.c1}

  • [50 million Europeans went overseas, and 38 million Chinese and Indians migrated to South-East Asia, both for economic necessity]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[racism and the end of slavery]{.c10}[:]{.c1}

  • [UK outlawed slave-trade in 1807 and slavery in 1833; last to abolish slavery was Brazil in 1888]{.c1}
  • [former slaves become “free” workforce and landless poor]{.c1}
  • [racism is a mean to discriminate the further and keep them away from political participation]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[increasing racism after 1850]{.c10}[:]{.c1}

  • [european elites and settlers isolate themselves from the native population]{.c1}
  • [european “supremacy” is legitimised by scientific racist theories and “social Darwinism”]{.c1}
  • [in some of the ex-colonies, official apartheid is introduced, such as South Africa, and the south of the USA.]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

  1. [the effects of Western influence on China and Japan]{.c3} {#h.nnk9vlt7h774-1 style=”display:inline”}

[CHINA]{.c1}

[humiliating times for China :]{.c1}

  • [military defeats against Western powers and Japan in 1884-1901 ]{.c1}
  • [anti-foreign Boxer Uprising (Yihetuan Movement) and internal conflicts in 1899-1901]{.c1}
  • [end of the Qing Dynasty and of the Empire in 1911]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[China share in the manufacturing world: ]{.c1}

[1750: china was producing one third of the world]{.c1}

[1913: shared reduced to 3.6% (growing productivity gap between europe and china, refusal to western influence as opposition to wester fashion, products etc., social reaction to changes)]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[JAPAN]{.c1}

[main executive power of the empire: figure of the military leader (shogun)]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

after[ the forced opening of the frontiers there was a sense of dissatisfaction among the samurais and the noble for the shogunate's policies]{.c1}

[(“how can we relate ourselves with the increasing power of the west?)]{.c1}

[↓]{.c1}

[Mehi reforms: alliance between the emperor Meiji and the nobles, which led to the resignation of the shogun and to the Boshin civil war]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[meiji era]{.c10}[: ]{.c1}

  • [establishment of the state under the emperor Meiji]{.c1}
  • [imperial rule is restored and a constitution of western inspiration is voted]{.c1}
  • [imitation of western institutions]{.c1}
  • [effort for industrialization, nationalism, imperial politics and ambitions, military reinforcement]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[japan emerging as a regional empire:]{.c1}

  • [victory of the first sino-japanese war]{.c1}
  • [victory of the russo-japanese war]{.c1}
  • [japan gains control of Taiwan, Korea and the southern part of Sakhalin ]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

in both[ cases for China and Japan, the population was not willing to let go of national beliefs and traditions, and while they both had their humiliations, the chinese underwent this process as a closing to options from the outside, while Japan after the forced opening reacted with a systematic effort as powerful as the west.]{.c1}

  1. [knowledge check]{.c3} {#h.nnk9vlt7h774-2 style=”display:inline”}

[]{.c1}

  1. [could India benefit from British rule? ]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

  1. [how was it that Africa became economically dependent? ]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

  1. was[ there a real nexus between colonialism, migration, and racism? ]{.c1}

[]{.c1}

  1. what were the similarities and differences between Japan and China?

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