Arca Unit 13

[Global changes: colonialism and imperialism]{.c11}

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  1. [British takeover of India ]{.c5} {#h.q8228qubilar style=”display:inline”}

[the Moghl Empire’s power had weakned since the 18th century due to political tension between the muslim emperor and the hindu subjects and regional rivalries (advantage for the East India Company)]{.c0}

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[1848-57: modernization, construction/introduction of railways, canals, and the telegraph by the Company]{.c0}

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[1857-58: anti-British rebellion for reforms, land taxes, crisis of the Company rule;]{.c0}

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[1858: repression of the rebellion by the British ]{.c0}

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[1858: dissolution of the East India Company, direct administration of India by the British government, proclamation of a unitary state; limited British-style parliamentary system; ]{.c0}

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[1885: Indian National Congress foundation]{.c0}

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  1. [the British-Chinese Wars of 1839-41 and 1856-60]{.c5} {#h.jrsly3a25bf1 style=”display:inline”}

[the chinese were not interested in buying european products from the british, but they found opium to be the best alternative and started to import it in big quantities even if it was illegal]{.c0}

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[the Chinese Empire became stricter and destroy the drugs, which was seen from the british as the motive to move war to China]{.c0}

  • [the war was fought mainly on the coast with the intent not to conquer land but the see trade (Henry John Palmerston: drugs, arms and drugs are the three most important commodities for world trade)]{.c0}

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  1. [scramble for Africa, 1875-1914 ]{.c14} {#h.a5zcvj6a1ter style=”display:inline”}

[Uk, Turkey, France, Italy, Germany, Portugal and Spain]{.c0}

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[in the previous centuries the european interest in Africa was concentrated on the coasts, where they could trade with the countryside]{.c0}

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[there wasn’t an interest to conquer land with the exception of South Africa (Netherland and UK)]{.c0}

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[by 1870s 10% was under european control]{.c0}

[capitalism created the need for raw materials and export markets: from the 1860s european countries began to expand military in Africa]{.c0}

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[new countries like Italy and Germany started to have interest in Africa to maofest their industrialized country status ]{.c0}

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  • [Berlin Conference of 1884: to avoid war between european powers]{.c0}

[regulated european colonization and trade (starting point for the conquest of the continent)]{.c0}

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[in 1914 the control over Africa had increased to 90%]{.c0}

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[the only independent territory was Ethiopia]{.c0}

  1. [russian and American Expansion]{.c5} {#h.581mcb3ako45 style=”display:inline”}

[1822: the american colonization society created Liberia]{.c0}

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[Cuba]{.c7}[: they fought three times to free themselves of spanish rule and they almost achieved independence and the USA came to their support and occupied the country (american-spanish war of 1898) ]{.c0}

  • [1902 cuban independence]{.c0}

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[Philippines Revolution]{.c7}[:active resistance again spanish monarchy]{.c0}

[1886 rebellions broke out and in 1898 the US intervened]{.c0}

  • [contrast between americans and philippines, they started a war of independence from americans, which lasted until 1902, and finished with the philippines defeat]{.c0}

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[the fights against the spanish dominion gave the americans the opportunity to conquer strategic areas: Puerto Rico, Panama (Panama channel), Hawaii, Guam, Philippines]{.c0}

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[Russia]{.c7}[: ]{.c0}

[16th/17th century: expansion in Siberia]{.c0}

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[19th century: expansion in South and East Asia, the East (conflict with the british Empire for China and Japan)]{.c0}

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[Russo-Japanese War 1904-05:]{.c0}

[broke out over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea]{.c0}

  • the[ Russian defeat was a major blow to the Tsarist regime and its expansionist aspirations.]{.c0}

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  1. [Knowledge check]{.c5} {#h.2fc4z96e9ytp style=”display:inline”}

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  1. which[ juridical and political aspects had the British takeover of India?]{.c0}

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  1. what[ were the British-Chinese Wars about? ]{.c0}

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  1. which[ old and new colonial powers participated in the Scramble for Africa? ]{.c0}

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  1. [what were the similarities and differences between Russian and American expansionism]{.c0}

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