Arca Unit 12

[World Timeline, 1750-1914 : Western Domination]{.c12}

[almost the whole world was dominated by Europe at the eve of World War I]{.c3}

[the only fully independent state is Japan]{.c3}

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  1. [Napoleon in Egypt (1798-1801)]{.c0} {#h.wikq85s1h5pt style=”display:inline”}

in 1798[  Napoleon invaded Egypt and brought along scientists, engineers and scholars to capture Egyptian culture and history]{.c3}

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[Napoleon’s goal: ]{.c3}

  • [to control the Mediterranean and to create a french controlled corridor to the red sea and the indian ocean, subtracting these areas to the Ottoman Empire and to compete with Great Britain (betrayal of the alliance between France and the Ottoman Empire dating back to the 16th century)]{.c3}

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[Napoleon told the egyptians that the invasion was to fight the Mamluks which wanted independence ]{.c3}

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  1. [technological innovations and transport systems]{.c0} {#h.8qmx5m10n9o5 style=”display:inline”}

  • [military means: breech-loading rifles, machine guns]{.c3}
  • [circulation of people and goods: lowering of transport coast, transocean steam ships, building of channels (Suez built by the french and Panama in the 20th century) and the transatlantic telegraph ]{.c3}

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  1. [imperialism of the Industrial Age]{.c0} {#h.agm1bqln8bu style=”display:inline”}

[territorial focus: Africa, Middle East, Asia and Pacific societies]{.c3}

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[the British and the French were the most important imperialists of this age]{.c3}

  • [Japan started to build an empire in east Asia]{.c3}

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[motives of expansion:]{.c3}

  1. [economic motives: export of industrial production, raw materials, internal social “pacification”]{.c3}
  2. [geopolitical motives: competing nationalism and chauvinism]{.c3}
  3. [ideological motives: export of a higher form of humanism, dissemination of Christianity, export of technical progress, export of economic wealth, education ]{.c3}

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  1. [western expansionism in Asia]{.c0} {#h.bsvjzeeyaxdp style=”display:inline”}

[not only european but rather western imperialism since the USA participated too]{.c3}

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[USA]{.c7}[: had expantionst drive in Liberia, Hawaii and the Pacific Islands]{.c3}

  • [the US navy forced the opening to wester trade of Japan in 1854, which triggers a period of reforms and industrialization in Japan]{.c3}
  • [interest in India and the Philippines, developing of anti-colonial movements]{.c3}

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[Indonesia]{.c7}[: ]{.c3}

[dutch east India company will be dissolved and the government of the Netherlands establishes Indonesia as the Dutch East Indies, a nationalized colony]{.c3}

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[India]{.c7}[: ]{.c3}

[rebellions in 1857 against the politics of the East India Company which led to the dissolution of the East India Company, direct administration of India by the British government. Founding of the Indian National Congress in 1885]{.c3}

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[China]{.c7}[:]{.c3}

  • [first Opium War against Britain for the import of opium in the name of free trade in 1839-42, ended with the victory of the UK]{.c3}
  • [second Opium War in 1856-60, anti-foreign Boxer Uprising (Yihetuan Movement) in 1899-1901. ]{.c3}
  • [end of the social problem with the end of the Qing Dynasty in 1911]{.c3}

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  1. [Knowledge check]{.c0} {#h.vlt8ej5ccbpc style=”display:inline”}

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  1. [What was the locals’ perception of the French penetration of Egypt, and what was its purpose according to Napoleon? ]{.c3}

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  1. [Which technological innovations made worldwide economic expansion possible? ]{.c3}

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  1. [What was different with the imperialism of the Industrial Age if compared to earlier colonialism? ]{.c3}

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  1. [What were the British-Chinese Wars and the US-"Opening of Japan" about?]{.c3}

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