Arca Unit 11


[Social changes in Europe 1800-1914]{.c11}


  1. [an overview of social changes up until World War One ]{.c9} {#h.p6fonz8iwn7y style=”display:inline”}

[19th century: a change of class structure, and a change of names]{.c0}

  • [French Revolution: three estates]{.c0}
  • [English society in 1814: based on income]{.c0}


[Marx’s division of classes: ]{.c0}

[based on the position of the individual in the process of production]{.c0}

  1. [capitalists, or bourgeoisie: ]{.c0}

[own the means of production and purchase the labor power of others ]{.c0}

  1. [workers, or proletariat:]{.c0}

[do not own means of production, sell their own labor power.]{.c0}

  1. [petite bourgeoisie transitional or “middling” class:]{.c0}

[owns means of production but does not purchase labor power.]{.c0}


[class consciousness: (political debate)]{.c0}

[all workers are in the same condition, they are all deprived of the means of production, so they have to sell their work force, which puts them in a condition opposed in the interest to those who own the means of production]{.c0}


[Heywood post linguistic-turn approach:]{.c8}


[first half of the century:]{.c0}

  • [looks at them main ideological self reflection]{.c0}

[the bourgeoisie - liberal ideology]{.c0}

[working class- socialist ideology]{.c0}

  • [some identified in the conservative ideology]{.c0}


[second half of the century:]{.c0}

  • [looks at the effectiveness of these ideologies in describing society and explains social changes]{.c0}


  1. [transformations of bourgeoisie and the "liberal idea"]{.c9} {#h.2nzis8ylykn6 style=”display:inline”}


  1. [first half of the nineteenth century: the age of liberal utopia]{.c0}
  • [the ideology of the "middle classes”, the social basis of liberalism, the "public sphere”, the institutions of the "public sphere”, private sphere and the role of women (symbol of the distinction between the public and private sphere, they were relegated in the private sphere)]{.c0}


[liberal utopia]{.c8}[: expectation that society would develop increasingly in free product on  ]{.c0}

[                                   the market in a optimal allocation of the resources of the society]{.c0}

  1. [second half of the nineteenth century: the liberal idyll collapses]{.c0}

[the rhetorical models survive their social confutation]{.c0}

  • [no expansion and generalization of the middle class: growing social inequality, large concentration of financial and industrial capital hamper free competition thanks to the oligopolistic structure of the market, aristocratic social models of the new industrial bourgeoisie,  fears of decay of small shopkeepers and traders, new (State-dependent) bourgeoisie: bureaucrats, academics, professionals, employees]{.c0}
  • [the inadequacy of liberal utopia + the emergence of nationalist, corporatist, and community-oriented]{.c0}


  1. [transformations of the working class and the "socialist idea"]{.c9} {#h.f0evut6lzaen style=”display:inline”}

[the first workers' movement: "utopian" socialism (Marx)]{.c0}

  • [republican and democratic radical movements claiming political participation, healthcare]{.c0}
  • [cooperative movements]{.c0}
  • [utopian thinkers: Owen, Fourier, Weitling ]{.c0}
  • [religious social commitment organized by the church]{.c0}
  • [statist socialism (Louis Blanc 1848: workhouses in France) social rights, no unemployment]{.c0}


[revolution in 1848: ]{.c0}

[watershed moment for Heywood, gave rise to forms of working class oriented socialist organization influenced my marxist theories]{.c0}


[the emergence of the second labor movement: "scientific" socialism ]{.c0}

  • [the theory is based on "apocalyptic" revolutionary goals]{.c0}
  • [the bourgeois republic is seen only as a stage]{.c0}
  • [at the same time the trade union movement develops pragmatic strategies ]{.c0}
  • [movement for the liberation of women]{.c0}


[what “real workers” imagined: working ethics, internal hierarchies]{.c0}

  • [socialism, populism and anarchism ]{.c0}
  • [trade union struggles and “moderation” around 1890-1910]{.c0}
  • [ideological subordination and the First World War]{.c0}


  1. [the "residual" sectors of society: nobility and peasants]{.c9} {#h.upvnj1ykztgd style=”display:inline”}

[conservatism, the "upper strata" and the hierarchical society ]{.c0}

[(high clergy, nobility, aristocrats etc.)]{.c0}


[the conservative protest against progress:]{.c0}

  • [Edmund Burke and the shattered “natural” order]{.c0}
  • [the Church and notables have a paternalistic and charitable approach regarding the "social question"]{.c0}
  • [sometimes, even among peasants and workers this ideology takes hold]{.c0}
  • [paternalism of the landed gentry to "their" farmers]{.c0}


[permanent role of the nobility in the state apparatus in the neo absolutists regimes:]{.c0}

  • [Tsarist Empire, the Habsburg Empire and Germany (key function in the government and military)]{.c0}


[Heywood doesn’t mention reform-oriented political conservatism, and the weight, social and political, of rural classes in continental Europe]{.c0}

  1. [knowledge check]{.c9} {#h.53beasdstf5b style=”display:inline”}


  1. what[ were the emergent social groups and what were the declining ones? ]{.c0}


  1. what[ was different in bourgeois development during the first and second half of the 19th century? ]{.c0}


  1. how[ did the social conditions of workers and the labor movement change after 1848?]{.c0}


  1. which[ social groups could conservatism rely on?]{.c0}



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