Arca Unit 10

[The concept of nation and nationalism]{.c10}

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  1. [The idea of Nation: essentialism vs constructivism ]{.c11} {#h.uuwfb4ssccin style=”display:inline”}

[a nation is a : ]{.c2}

  • [a geographical entity that as a rule evolved from the transformation of pre-existing dynastic states]{.c2}
  • [ a spiritual entity or principle based on collective memory, and the feeling of belonging]{.c2}
  • [a coherent historical narrative based on facts selected to make them converge, such to represent the nation as necessary, logical and coherent outcome]{.c2}

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  1. [The phases of nation-building ]{.c11} {#h.e57o6ua3yg4z style=”display:inline”}

[Ernest Gellner ]{.c9}[1970s approach to the problem of nation building  ]{.c2}

[                         (essentialism/constructivism approach):]{.c2}

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[stages that apply to all cases:]{.c2}

  1. [status ex ante (before the French Revolution) ]{.c2}

[when there was no modern nations, that will be born later with the revolution]{.c2}

  1. [national irredentism/movements ]{.c2}

[early national movement were shaped by the resistance against Napoleon]{.c2}

  1. [emergence of the nation-state]{.c2}
  2. [phase of extreme nationalisms ]{.c2}

[late 19th century and early 20th century which produced chauvinism and militaristic ambition that will provoking two world wars]{.c2}

  1. [phase of cultural convergence]{.c2}

[cultural community and international solidarity ]{.c2}

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[return of nationalism in the 1990s to today]{.c2}

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[Miroslav Horsch ]{.c9}[“Social precondition of national revival in Europe” (constructivist positions)]{.c2}

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  • [nation: a nation is defined by objective links and their subjective reflection in the collective consciousness.]{.c2}

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  • [three moments of nation building: ]{.c2}
  1. [creation of a “memory of a common past ]{.c2}
  2. [social communication across linguistic and cultural borders (schooling, means of communication)]{.c2}
  3. [spread the idea of equality]{.c2}

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[three stages model: ]{.c2}

  1. [phase A: individual intellectuals are committed to establish an idea of national identity]{.c2}
  2. [phase B: political activism for the 'resurgence' of the nation]{.c2}
  3. [phase C: the national movement becomes a mass movement and manages to include the majority of the population]{.c2}

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  1. [The nation as an imagined community ]{.c11} {#h.q256eq35uzq6 style=”display:inline”}

[Benedict Anderson, anthropologist with studies about Indonesia]{.c2}

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  • [a nation is a real community, not in fact (face-to-face) but in the sense that members imagine themselves in solidarity with one another beyond the political and social contrasts. A nation is both imagined and imaginary, since no single person belonging to it in his life will know all the others belonging to the same nation, as it would be in a de facto community]{.c2}

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  • [communities (national, tribal etc.) should not be distinguished according to objective criteria, but only in the way in which they imagine themselves ]{.c2}

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  1. [Pedagogy and the invention of tradition]{.c11} {#h.33c8ah4fabbh style=”display:inline”}

[Hobsbawm, Ranger: “The Invention of Tradition”]{.c2}

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  • [national identity is based on the representation of the modern nation in terms of an ancient, primordial phenomenon, notwithstanding it is, in fact, a new historical phenomenon]{.c2}

[(the nation states of the 19th century put on themselves the task to create the imaginary of these old traditions to prove the eternal existence of the nation)]{.c2}

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  • [to represent the nation as something that just must be 'rediscovered' or 'resurrected', alleged traditions are invented that did not previously exist]{.c2}

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  • [to be taken over by the 'masses' from the elites who invented them, these traditions are disseminated first by the means of culture (poems, novels, works, dictionaries, newspapers etc.), then through political propaganda]{.c2}

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  • [once the nation-state is founded, the education of the masses continues through the press, books, the cult of national heroes, school education, military service, public rites and a rewriting of the landscape ]{.c2}

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[Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi ; founding father of european pedagogy]{.c2}

  • [linking a certain thing to the identity of the nation (forest for germans)]{.c2}

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  1. [Knowledge check ]{.c11} {#h.isgmojcpuldg style=”display:inline”}

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  1. [The nation as we understand it today is old or recent? ]{.c2}

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  1. [What were the stages of the nation's affirmation?]{.c2}

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  1. [Do State-borders, political structures, sentiment, and sacrifice confer the "imaginary" character of nations?]{.c2}

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  1. [What is the role of schooling, arts, literature for explaining the power behind the idea of Nation?]{.c2}

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